Diffusion models have emerged as the de facto paradigm for video generation. However, their reliance on web-scale data of varied quality often yields results that are visually unappealing and misaligned with the textual prompts. To tackle this problem, we propose InstructVideo to instruct text-to-video diffusion models with human feedback by reward fine-tuning. InstructVideo has two key ingredients: 1) To ameliorate the cost of reward fine-tuning induced by generating through the full DDIM sampling chain, we recast reward fine-tuning as editing. By leveraging the diffusion process to corrupt a sampled video, InstructVideo requires only partial inference of the DDIM sampling chain, reducing fine-tuning cost while improving fine-tuning efficiency. 2) To mitigate the absence of a dedicated video reward model for human preferences, we repurpose established image reward models, e.g., HPSv2. To this end, we propose Segmental Video Reward, a mechanism to provide reward signals based on segmental sparse sampling, and Temporally Attenuated Reward, a method that mitigates temporal modeling degradation during fine-tuning. Extensive experiments, both qualitative and quantitative, validate the practicality and efficacy of using image reward models in InstructVideo, significantly enhancing the visual quality of generated videos without compromising generalization capabilities. Code and models will be made publicly available.
Despite diffusion models having shown powerful abilities to generate photorealistic images, generating videos that are realistic and diverse still remains in its infancy. One of the key reasons is that current methods intertwine spatial content and temporal dynamics together, leading to a notably increased complexity of text-to-video generation (T2V). In this work, we propose HiGen, a diffusion model-based method that improves performance by decoupling the spatial and temporal factors of videos from two perspectives, i.e., structure level and content level. At the structure level, we decompose the T2V task into two steps, including spatial reasoning and temporal reasoning, using a unified denoiser. Specifically, we generate spatially coherent priors using text during spatial reasoning and then generate temporally coherent motions from these priors during temporal reasoning. At the content level, we extract two subtle cues from the content of the input video that can express motion and appearance changes, respectively. These two cues then guide the model's training for generating videos, enabling flexible content variations and enhancing temporal stability. Through the decoupled paradigm, HiGen can effectively reduce the complexity of this task and generate realistic videos with semantics accuracy and motion stability. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of HiGen over the state-of-the-art T2V methods.
Customized generation using diffusion models has made impressive progress in image generation, but remains unsatisfactory in the challenging video generation task, as it requires the controllability of both subjects and motions. To that end, we present DreamVideo, a novel approach to generating personalized videos from a few static images of the desired subject and a few videos of target motion. DreamVideo decouples this task into two stages, subject learning and motion learning, by leveraging a pre-trained video diffusion model. The subject learning aims to accurately capture the fine appearance of the subject from provided images, which is achieved by combining textual inversion and fine-tuning of our carefully designed identity adapter. In motion learning, we architect a motion adapter and fine-tune it on the given videos to effectively model the target motion pattern. Combining these two lightweight and efficient adapters allows for flexible customization of any subject with any motion. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our DreamVideo over the state-of-the-art methods for customized video generation. Our project page is at https://dreamvideo-t2v.github.io.
Cross-corpus speech emotion recognition (SER) seeks to generalize the ability of inferring speech emotion from a well-labeled corpus to an unlabeled one, which is a rather challenging task due to the significant discrepancy between two corpora. Existing methods, typically based on unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), struggle to learn corpus-invariant features by global distribution alignment, but unfortunately, the resulting features are mixed with corpus-specific features or not class-discriminative. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel Emotion Decoupling aNd Alignment learning framework (EMO-DNA) for cross-corpus SER, a novel UDA method to learn emotion-relevant corpus-invariant features. The novelties of EMO-DNA are two-fold: contrastive emotion decoupling and dual-level emotion alignment. On one hand, our contrastive emotion decoupling achieves decoupling learning via a contrastive decoupling loss to strengthen the separability of emotion-relevant features from corpus-specific ones. On the other hand, our dual-level emotion alignment introduces an adaptive threshold pseudo-labeling to select confident target samples for class-level alignment, and performs corpus-level alignment to jointly guide model for learning class-discriminative corpus-invariant features across corpora. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of EMO-DNA over the state-of-the-art methods in several cross-corpus scenarios. Source code is available at https://github.com/Jiaxin-Ye/Emo-DNA.
Online continual learning (CL) studies the problem of learning continuously from a single-pass data stream while adapting to new data and mitigating catastrophic forgetting. Recently, by storing a small subset of old data, replay-based methods have shown promising performance. Unlike previous methods that focus on sample storage or knowledge distillation against catastrophic forgetting, this paper aims to understand why the online learning models fail to generalize well from a new perspective of shortcut learning. We identify shortcut learning as the key limiting factor for online CL, where the learned features may be biased, not generalizable to new tasks, and may have an adverse impact on knowledge distillation. To tackle this issue, we present the online prototype learning (OnPro) framework for online CL. First, we propose online prototype equilibrium to learn representative features against shortcut learning and discriminative features to avoid class confusion, ultimately achieving an equilibrium status that separates all seen classes well while learning new classes. Second, with the feedback of online prototypes, we devise a novel adaptive prototypical feedback mechanism to sense the classes that are easily misclassified and then enhance their boundaries. Extensive experimental results on widely-used benchmark datasets demonstrate the superior performance of OnPro over the state-of-the-art baseline methods. Source code is available at https://github.com/weilllllls/OnPro.
Speech emotion recognition (SER) plays a vital role in improving the interactions between humans and machines by inferring human emotion and affective states from speech signals. Whereas recent works primarily focus on mining spatiotemporal information from hand-crafted features, we explore how to model the temporal patterns of speech emotions from dynamic temporal scales. Towards that goal, we introduce a novel temporal emotional modeling approach for SER, termed Temporal-aware bI-direction Multi-scale Network (TIM-Net), which learns multi-scale contextual affective representations from various time scales. Specifically, TIM-Net first employs temporal-aware blocks to learn temporal affective representation, then integrates complementary information from the past and the future to enrich contextual representations, and finally, fuses multiple time scale features for better adaptation to the emotional variation. Extensive experimental results on six benchmark SER datasets demonstrate the superior performance of TIM-Net, gaining 2.34% and 2.61% improvements of the average UAR and WAR over the second-best on each corpus. Remarkably, TIM-Net outperforms the latest domain-adaptation method on the cross-corpus SER tasks, demonstrating strong generalizability.
Computer vision-based damage detection using remote cameras and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enables efficient and low-cost bridge health monitoring that reduces labor costs and the needs for sensor installation and maintenance. By leveraging recent semantic image segmentation approaches, we are able to find regions of critical structural components and recognize damage at the pixel level using images as the only input. However, existing methods perform poorly when detecting small damages (e.g., cracks and exposed rebars) and thin objects with limited image samples, especially when the components of interest are highly imbalanced. To this end, this paper introduces a semantic segmentation framework that imposes the hierarchical semantic relationship between component category and damage types. For example, certain concrete cracks only present on bridge columns and therefore the non-column region will be masked out when detecting such damages. In this way, the damage detection model could focus on learning features from possible damaged regions only and avoid the effects of other irrelevant regions. We also utilize multi-scale augmentation that provides views with different scales that preserves contextual information of each image without losing the ability of handling small and thin objects. Furthermore, the proposed framework employs important sampling that repeatedly samples images containing rare components (e.g., railway sleeper and exposed rebars) to provide more data samples, which addresses the imbalanced data challenge.