We introduce VISUAL EMBEDDED INSTRUCTION (VIM), a new framework designed to evaluate the visual instruction following capability of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs). As illustrated in Figure 2, VIM challenges the MLLMs by embedding the instructions into the visual scenes, demanding strong visual interpretative skills for instruction following. We adapt VIM to various benchmarks, including VQAv2, MME, MM-Vet, and RefCOCO series, compose a VIM bench, and probe diverse MLLMs across three distinct in-context learning settings: Zero Shot, One Shot, and Pair Shot. We observe that there is a significant performance disparity between the open-source MLLMs and GPT-4V, implying that their proficiency in visual instruction comprehension is not up to par. Our results highlight a promising direction for the enhancement of MLLMs capabilities on instruction following. We aim VIM to serve as a useful norm for advancing the state of the art and driving further progress in the field.
Automatically evaluating vision-language tasks is challenging, especially when it comes to reflecting human judgments due to limitations in accounting for fine-grained details. Although GPT-4V has shown promising results in various multi-modal tasks, leveraging GPT-4V as a generalist evaluator for these tasks has not yet been systematically explored. We comprehensively validate GPT-4V's capabilities for evaluation purposes, addressing tasks ranging from foundational image-to-text and text-to-image synthesis to high-level image-to-image translations and multi-images to text alignment. We employ two evaluation methods, single-answer grading and pairwise comparison, using GPT-4V. Notably, GPT-4V shows promising agreement with humans across various tasks and evaluation methods, demonstrating immense potential for multi-modal LLMs as evaluators. Despite limitations like restricted visual clarity grading and real-world complex reasoning, its ability to provide human-aligned scores enriched with detailed explanations is promising for universal automatic evaluator.
Recently, a myriad of conditional image generation and editing models have been developed to serve different downstream tasks, including text-to-image generation, text-guided image editing, subject-driven image generation, control-guided image generation, etc. However, we observe huge inconsistencies in experimental conditions: datasets, inference, and evaluation metrics - render fair comparisons difficult. This paper proposes ImagenHub, which is a one-stop library to standardize the inference and evaluation of all the conditional image generation models. Firstly, we define seven prominent tasks and curate high-quality evaluation datasets for them. Secondly, we built a unified inference pipeline to ensure fair comparison. Thirdly, we design two human evaluation scores, i.e. Semantic Consistency and Perceptual Quality, along with comprehensive guidelines to evaluate generated images. We train expert raters to evaluate the model outputs based on the proposed metrics. Our human evaluation achieves a high inter-worker agreement of Krippendorff's alpha on 76% models with a value higher than 0.4. We comprehensively evaluated a total of around 30 models and observed three key takeaways: (1) the existing models' performance is generally unsatisfying except for Text-guided Image Generation and Subject-driven Image Generation, with 74% models achieving an overall score lower than 0.5. (2) we examined the claims from published papers and found 83% of them hold with a few exceptions. (3) None of the existing automatic metrics has a Spearman's correlation higher than 0.2 except subject-driven image generation. Moving forward, we will continue our efforts to evaluate newly published models and update our leaderboard to keep track of the progress in conditional image generation.
Mental illness remains one of the most critical public health issues of our time, due to the severe scarcity and accessibility limit of professionals. Psychotherapy requires high-level expertise to conduct deep, complex reasoning and analysis on the cognition modeling of the patients. In the era of Large Language Models, we believe it is the right time to develop AI assistance for computational psychotherapy. We study the task of cognitive distortion detection and propose the Diagnosis of Thought (DoT) prompting. DoT performs diagnosis on the patient's speech via three stages: subjectivity assessment to separate the facts and the thoughts; contrastive reasoning to elicit the reasoning processes supporting and contradicting the thoughts; and schema analysis to summarize the cognition schemas. The generated diagnosis rationales through the three stages are essential for assisting the professionals. Experiments demonstrate that DoT obtains significant improvements over ChatGPT for cognitive distortion detection, while generating high-quality rationales approved by human experts.
Recent advances in foundation models present new opportunities for interpretable visual recognition -- one can first query Large Language Models (LLMs) to obtain a set of attributes that describe each class, then apply vision-language models to classify images via these attributes. Pioneering work shows that querying thousands of attributes can achieve performance competitive with image features. However, our further investigation on 8 datasets reveals that LLM-generated attributes in a large quantity perform almost the same as random words. This surprising finding suggests that significant noise may be present in these attributes. We hypothesize that there exist subsets of attributes that can maintain the classification performance with much smaller sizes, and propose a novel learning-to-search method to discover those concise sets of attributes. As a result, on the CUB dataset, our method achieves performance close to that of massive LLM-generated attributes (e.g., 10k attributes for CUB), yet using only 32 attributes in total to distinguish 200 bird species. Furthermore, our new paradigm demonstrates several additional benefits: higher interpretability and interactivity for humans, and the ability to summarize knowledge for a recognition task.
Despite constituting 65% of all internet traffic in 2023, video content is underrepresented in generative AI research. Meanwhile, recent large language models (LLMs) have become increasingly integrated with capabilities in the visual modality. Integrating video with LLMs is a natural next step, so how can this gap be bridged? To advance video reasoning, we propose a new research direction of VideoCOT on video keyframes, which leverages the multimodal generative abilities of vision-language models to enhance video reasoning while reducing the computational complexity of processing hundreds or thousands of frames. We introduce VIP, an inference-time dataset that can be used to evaluate VideoCOT, containing 1) a variety of real-life videos with keyframes and corresponding unstructured and structured scene descriptions, and 2) two new video reasoning tasks: video infilling and scene prediction. We benchmark various vision-language models on VIP, demonstrating the potential to use vision-language models and LLMs to enhance video chain of thought reasoning.
The field of text-to-image (T2I) generation has garnered significant attention both within the research community and among everyday users. Despite the advancements of T2I models, a common issue encountered by users is the need for repetitive editing of input prompts in order to receive a satisfactory image, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Given the demonstrated text generation power of large-scale language models, such as GPT-k, we investigate the potential of utilizing such models to improve the prompt editing process for T2I generation. We conduct a series of experiments to compare the common edits made by humans and GPT-k, evaluate the performance of GPT-k in prompting T2I, and examine factors that may influence this process. We found that GPT-k models focus more on inserting modifiers while humans tend to replace words and phrases, which includes changes to the subject matter. Experimental results show that GPT-k are more effective in adjusting modifiers rather than predicting spontaneous changes in the primary subject matters. Adopting the edit suggested by GPT-k models may reduce the percentage of remaining edits by 20-30%.
Existing automatic evaluation on text-to-image synthesis can only provide an image-text matching score, without considering the object-level compositionality, which results in poor correlation with human judgments. In this work, we propose LLMScore, a new framework that offers evaluation scores with multi-granularity compositionality. LLMScore leverages the large language models (LLMs) to evaluate text-to-image models. Initially, it transforms the image into image-level and object-level visual descriptions. Then an evaluation instruction is fed into the LLMs to measure the alignment between the synthesized image and the text, ultimately generating a score accompanied by a rationale. Our substantial analysis reveals the highest correlation of LLMScore with human judgments on a wide range of datasets (Attribute Binding Contrast, Concept Conjunction, MSCOCO, DrawBench, PaintSkills). Notably, our LLMScore achieves Kendall's tau correlation with human evaluations that is 58.8% and 31.2% higher than the commonly-used text-image matching metrics CLIP and BLIP, respectively.
Recent advances in large language models elicit reasoning in a chain of thought that allows models to decompose problems in a human-like fashion. Though this paradigm improves multi-step reasoning ability in language models, it is limited by being unimodal and applied mainly to question-answering tasks. We claim that incorporating visual augmentation into reasoning is essential, especially for complex, imaginative tasks. Consequently, we introduce VCoT, a novel method that leverages chain of thought prompting with vision-language grounding to recursively bridge the logical gaps within sequential data. Our method uses visual guidance to generate synthetic multimodal infillings that add consistent and novel information to reduce the logical gaps for downstream tasks that can benefit from temporal reasoning, as well as provide interpretability into models' multi-step reasoning. We apply VCoT to the Visual Storytelling and WikiHow summarization datasets and demonstrate through human evaluation that VCoT offers novel and consistent synthetic data augmentation beating chain of thought baselines, which can be used to enhance downstream performance.