We present MM-Navigator, a GPT-4V-based agent for the smartphone graphical user interface (GUI) navigation task. MM-Navigator can interact with a smartphone screen as human users, and determine subsequent actions to fulfill given instructions. Our findings demonstrate that large multimodal models (LMMs), specifically GPT-4V, excel in zero-shot GUI navigation through its advanced screen interpretation, action reasoning, and precise action localization capabilities. We first benchmark MM-Navigator on our collected iOS screen dataset. According to human assessments, the system exhibited a 91\% accuracy rate in generating reasonable action descriptions and a 75\% accuracy rate in executing the correct actions for single-step instructions on iOS. Additionally, we evaluate the model on a subset of an Android screen navigation dataset, where the model outperforms previous GUI navigators in a zero-shot fashion. Our benchmark and detailed analyses aim to lay a robust groundwork for future research into the GUI navigation task. The project page is at https://github.com/zzxslp/MM-Navigator.
We present MM-VID, an integrated system that harnesses the capabilities of GPT-4V, combined with specialized tools in vision, audio, and speech, to facilitate advanced video understanding. MM-VID is designed to address the challenges posed by long-form videos and intricate tasks such as reasoning within hour-long content and grasping storylines spanning multiple episodes. MM-VID uses a video-to-script generation with GPT-4V to transcribe multimodal elements into a long textual script. The generated script details character movements, actions, expressions, and dialogues, paving the way for large language models (LLMs) to achieve video understanding. This enables advanced capabilities, including audio description, character identification, and multimodal high-level comprehension. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of MM-VID in handling distinct video genres with various video lengths. Additionally, we showcase its potential when applied to interactive environments, such as video games and graphic user interfaces.
We introduce DEsignBench, a text-to-image (T2I) generation benchmark tailored for visual design scenarios. Recent T2I models like DALL-E 3 and others, have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in generating photorealistic images that align closely with textual inputs. While the allure of creating visually captivating images is undeniable, our emphasis extends beyond mere aesthetic pleasure. We aim to investigate the potential of using these powerful models in authentic design contexts. In pursuit of this goal, we develop DEsignBench, which incorporates test samples designed to assess T2I models on both "design technical capability" and "design application scenario." Each of these two dimensions is supported by a diverse set of specific design categories. We explore DALL-E 3 together with other leading T2I models on DEsignBench, resulting in a comprehensive visual gallery for side-by-side comparisons. For DEsignBench benchmarking, we perform human evaluations on generated images in DEsignBench gallery, against the criteria of image-text alignment, visual aesthetic, and design creativity. Our evaluation also considers other specialized design capabilities, including text rendering, layout composition, color harmony, 3D design, and medium style. In addition to human evaluations, we introduce the first automatic image generation evaluator powered by GPT-4V. This evaluator provides ratings that align well with human judgments, while being easily replicable and cost-efficient. A high-resolution version is available at https://github.com/design-bench/design-bench.github.io/raw/main/designbench.pdf?download=
We introduce ``Idea to Image,'' a system that enables multimodal iterative self-refinement with GPT-4V(ision) for automatic image design and generation. Humans can quickly identify the characteristics of different text-to-image (T2I) models via iterative explorations. This enables them to efficiently convert their high-level generation ideas into effective T2I prompts that can produce good images. We investigate if systems based on large multimodal models (LMMs) can develop analogous multimodal self-refinement abilities that enable exploring unknown models or environments via self-refining tries. Idea2Img cyclically generates revised T2I prompts to synthesize draft images, and provides directional feedback for prompt revision, both conditioned on its memory of the probed T2I model's characteristics. The iterative self-refinement brings Idea2Img various advantages over vanilla T2I models. Notably, Idea2Img can process input ideas with interleaved image-text sequences, follow ideas with design instructions, and generate images of better semantic and visual qualities. The user preference study validates the efficacy of multimodal iterative self-refinement on automatic image design and generation.
This work investigates a challenging task named open-domain interleaved image-text generation, which generates interleaved texts and images following an input query. We propose a new interleaved generation framework based on prompting large-language models (LLMs) and pre-trained text-to-image (T2I) models, namely OpenLEAF. In OpenLEAF, the LLM generates textual descriptions, coordinates T2I models, creates visual prompts for generating images, and incorporates global contexts into the T2I models. This global context improves the entity and style consistencies of images in the interleaved generation. For model assessment, we first propose to use large multi-modal models (LMMs) to evaluate the entity and style consistencies of open-domain interleaved image-text sequences. According to the LMM evaluation on our constructed evaluation set, the proposed interleaved generation framework can generate high-quality image-text content for various domains and applications, such as how-to question answering, storytelling, graphical story rewriting, and webpage/poster generation tasks. Moreover, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed LMM evaluation technique with human assessment. We hope our proposed framework, benchmark, and LMM evaluation could help establish the intriguing interleaved image-text generation task.
Large multimodal models (LMMs) extend large language models (LLMs) with multi-sensory skills, such as visual understanding, to achieve stronger generic intelligence. In this paper, we analyze the latest model, GPT-4V(ision), to deepen the understanding of LMMs. The analysis focuses on the intriguing tasks that GPT-4V can perform, containing test samples to probe the quality and genericity of GPT-4V's capabilities, its supported inputs and working modes, and the effective ways to prompt the model. In our approach to exploring GPT-4V, we curate and organize a collection of carefully designed qualitative samples spanning a variety of domains and tasks. Observations from these samples demonstrate that GPT-4V's unprecedented ability in processing arbitrarily interleaved multimodal inputs and the genericity of its capabilities together make GPT-4V a powerful multimodal generalist system. Furthermore, GPT-4V's unique capability of understanding visual markers drawn on input images can give rise to new human-computer interaction methods such as visual referring prompting. We conclude the report with in-depth discussions on the emerging application scenarios and the future research directions for GPT-4V-based systems. We hope that this preliminary exploration will inspire future research on the next-generation multimodal task formulation, new ways to exploit and enhance LMMs to solve real-world problems, and gaining better understanding of multimodal foundation models. Finally, we acknowledge that the model under our study is solely the product of OpenAI's innovative work, and they should be fully credited for its development. Please see the GPT-4V contributions paper for the authorship and credit attribution: https://cdn.openai.com/contributions/gpt-4v.pdf
Semi-supervised semantic segmentation involves assigning pixel-wise labels to unlabeled images at training time. This is useful in a wide range of real-world applications where collecting pixel-wise labels is not feasible in time or cost. Current approaches to semi-supervised semantic segmentation work by predicting pseudo-labels for each pixel from a class-wise probability distribution output by a model. If the predicted probability distribution is incorrect, however, this leads to poor segmentation results, which can have knock-on consequences in safety critical systems, like medical images or self-driving cars. It is, therefore, important to understand what a model does not know, which is mainly achieved by uncertainty quantification. Recently, neural processes (NPs) have been explored in semi-supervised image classification, and they have been a computationally efficient and effective method for uncertainty quantification. In this work, we move one step forward by adapting NPs to semi-supervised semantic segmentation, resulting in a new model called NP-SemiSeg. We experimentally evaluated NP-SemiSeg on the public benchmarks PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscapes, with different training settings, and the results verify its effectiveness.
We propose MM-Vet, an evaluation benchmark that examines large multimodal models (LMMs) on complicated multimodal tasks. Recent LMMs have shown various intriguing abilities, such as solving math problems written on the blackboard, reasoning about events and celebrities in news images, and explaining visual jokes. Rapid model advancements pose challenges to evaluation benchmark development. Problems include: (1) How to systematically structure and evaluate the complicated multimodal tasks; (2) How to design evaluation metrics that work well across question and answer types; and (3) How to give model insights beyond a simple performance ranking. To this end, we present MM-Vet, designed based on the insight that the intriguing ability to solve complicated tasks is often achieved by a generalist model being able to integrate different core vision-language (VL) capabilities. MM-Vet defines 6 core VL capabilities and examines the 16 integrations of interest derived from the capability combination. For evaluation metrics, we propose an LLM-based evaluator for open-ended outputs. The evaluator enables the evaluation across different question types and answer styles, resulting in a unified scoring metric. We evaluate representative LMMs on MM-Vet, providing insights into the capabilities of different LMM system paradigms and models. Code and data are available at https://github.com/yuweihao/MM-Vet.
In this paper, we study the denoising diffusion probabilistic model (DDPM) in wavelet space, instead of pixel space, for visual synthesis. Considering the wavelet transform represents the image in spatial and frequency domains, we carefully design a novel architecture SFUNet to effectively capture the correlation for both domains. Specifically, in the standard denoising U-Net for pixel data, we supplement the 2D convolutions and spatial-only attention layers with our spatial frequency-aware convolution and attention modules to jointly model the complementary information from spatial and frequency domains in wavelet data. Our new architecture can be used as a drop-in replacement to the pixel-based network and is compatible with the vanilla DDPM training process. By explicitly modeling the wavelet signals, we find our model is able to generate images with higher quality on CIFAR-10, FFHQ, LSUN-Bedroom, and LSUN-Church datasets, than the pixel-based counterpart.