Large language models (LLMs), exemplified by ChatGPT, have gained considerable attention for their excellent natural language processing capabilities. Nonetheless, these LLMs present many challenges, particularly in the realm of trustworthiness. Therefore, ensuring the trustworthiness of LLMs emerges as an important topic. This paper introduces TrustLLM, a comprehensive study of trustworthiness in LLMs, including principles for different dimensions of trustworthiness, established benchmark, evaluation, and analysis of trustworthiness for mainstream LLMs, and discussion of open challenges and future directions. Specifically, we first propose a set of principles for trustworthy LLMs that span eight different dimensions. Based on these principles, we further establish a benchmark across six dimensions including truthfulness, safety, fairness, robustness, privacy, and machine ethics. We then present a study evaluating 16 mainstream LLMs in TrustLLM, consisting of over 30 datasets. Our findings firstly show that in general trustworthiness and utility (i.e., functional effectiveness) are positively related. Secondly, our observations reveal that proprietary LLMs generally outperform most open-source counterparts in terms of trustworthiness, raising concerns about the potential risks of widely accessible open-source LLMs. However, a few open-source LLMs come very close to proprietary ones. Thirdly, it is important to note that some LLMs may be overly calibrated towards exhibiting trustworthiness, to the extent that they compromise their utility by mistakenly treating benign prompts as harmful and consequently not responding. Finally, we emphasize the importance of ensuring transparency not only in the models themselves but also in the technologies that underpin trustworthiness. Knowing the specific trustworthy technologies that have been employed is crucial for analyzing their effectiveness.
* This work is still under work and we welcome your contribution
In this work, we aim to detect the changes caused by object variations in a scene represented by the neural radiance fields (NeRFs). Given an arbitrary view and two sets of scene images captured at different timestamps, we can predict the scene changes in that view, which has significant potential applications in scene monitoring and measuring. We conducted preliminary studies and found that such an exciting task cannot be easily achieved by utilizing existing NeRFs and 2D change detection methods with many false or missing detections. The main reason is that the 2D change detection is based on the pixel appearance difference between spatial-aligned image pairs and neglects the stereo information in the NeRF. To address the limitations, we propose the C-NERF to represent scene changes as directional consistency difference-based NeRF, which mainly contains three modules. We first perform the spatial alignment of two NeRFs captured before and after changes. Then, we identify the change points based on the direction-consistent constraint; that is, real change points have similar change representations across view directions, but fake change points do not. Finally, we design the change map rendering process based on the built NeRFs and can generate the change map of an arbitrarily specified view direction. To validate the effectiveness, we build a new dataset containing ten scenes covering diverse scenarios with different changing objects. Our approach surpasses state-of-the-art 2D change detection and NeRF-based methods by a significant margin.
State-of-the-art systems neuroscience experiments yield large-scale multimodal data, and these data sets require new tools for analysis. Inspired by the success of large pretrained models in vision and language domains, we reframe the analysis of large-scale, cellular-resolution neuronal spiking data into an autoregressive spatiotemporal generation problem. Neuroformer is a multimodal, multitask generative pretrained transformer (GPT) model that is specifically designed to handle the intricacies of data in systems neuroscience. It scales linearly with feature size, can process an arbitrary number of modalities, and is adaptable to downstream tasks, such as predicting behavior. We first trained Neuroformer on simulated datasets, and found that it both accurately predicted simulated neuronal circuit activity, and also intrinsically inferred the underlying neural circuit connectivity, including direction. When pretrained to decode neural responses, the model predicted the behavior of a mouse with only few-shot fine-tuning, suggesting that the model begins learning how to do so directly from the neural representations themselves, without any explicit supervision. We used an ablation study to show that joint training on neuronal responses and behavior boosted performance, highlighting the model's ability to associate behavioral and neural representations in an unsupervised manner. These findings show that Neuroformer can analyze neural datasets and their emergent properties, informing the development of models and hypotheses associated with the brain.
* 9 pages for main paper. 22 pages in total. 13 figures, 1 table
Large language models (LLMs) have shown promising capabilities in using external tools to solve complex problems. However, existing approaches either involve fine-tuning on tool demonstrations, which do not generalize to new tools without additional training, or providing tool documentation in context, limiting the number of tools. Both approaches often generate syntactically invalid tool calls. In this paper, we propose ToolDec, a finite-state machine-guided decoding algorithm for tool-augmented LLMs. ToolDec eliminates tool-related errors for any tool-augmented LLMs by ensuring valid tool names and type-conforming arguments. Furthermore, ToolDec enables LLM to effectively select tools using only the information contained in their names, with no need for fine-tuning or in-context documentation. We evaluated multiple prior methods and their ToolDec-enhanced versions on a variety of tasks involving tools like math functions, knowledge graph relations, and complex real-world RESTful APIs. Our experiments show that ToolDec reduces syntactic errors to zero, consequently achieving significantly better performance and as much as a 2x speedup. We also show that ToolDec achieves superior generalization performance on unseen tools, performing up to 8x better than the baselines.
We present a novel approach for structured data-to-text generation that addresses the limitations of existing methods that primarily focus on specific types of structured data. Our proposed method aims to improve performance in multi-task training, zero-shot and few-shot scenarios by providing a unified representation that can handle various forms of structured data such as tables, knowledge graph triples, and meaning representations. We demonstrate that our proposed approach can effectively adapt to new structured forms, and can improve performance in comparison to current methods. For example, our method resulted in a 66% improvement in zero-shot BLEU scores when transferring models trained on table inputs to a knowledge graph dataset. Our proposed method is an important step towards a more general data-to-text generation framework.
Recent advances in foundation models present new opportunities for interpretable visual recognition -- one can first query Large Language Models (LLMs) to obtain a set of attributes that describe each class, then apply vision-language models to classify images via these attributes. Pioneering work shows that querying thousands of attributes can achieve performance competitive with image features. However, our further investigation on 8 datasets reveals that LLM-generated attributes in a large quantity perform almost the same as random words. This surprising finding suggests that significant noise may be present in these attributes. We hypothesize that there exist subsets of attributes that can maintain the classification performance with much smaller sizes, and propose a novel learning-to-search method to discover those concise sets of attributes. As a result, on the CUB dataset, our method achieves performance close to that of massive LLM-generated attributes (e.g., 10k attributes for CUB), yet using only 32 attributes in total to distinguish 200 bird species. Furthermore, our new paradigm demonstrates several additional benefits: higher interpretability and interactivity for humans, and the ability to summarize knowledge for a recognition task.
Entities can be expressed in diverse formats, such as texts, images, or column names and cell values in tables. While existing entity linking (EL) models work well on per modality configuration, such as text-only EL, visual grounding, or schema linking, it is more challenging to design a unified model for diverse modality configurations. To bring various modality configurations together, we constructed a benchmark for diverse-modal EL (DMEL) from existing EL datasets, covering all three modalities including text, image, and table. To approach the DMEL task, we proposed a generative diverse-modal model (GDMM) following a multimodal-encoder-decoder paradigm. Pre-training \Model with rich corpora builds a solid foundation for DMEL without storing the entire KB for inference. Fine-tuning GDMM builds a stronger DMEL baseline, outperforming state-of-the-art task-specific EL models by 8.51 F1 score on average. Additionally, extensive error analyses are conducted to highlight the challenges of DMEL, facilitating future research on this task.