Developing a generalist agent is a longstanding objective in artificial intelligence. Previous efforts utilizing extensive offline datasets from various tasks demonstrate remarkable performance in multitasking scenarios within Reinforcement Learning. However, these works encounter challenges in extending their capabilities to new tasks. Recent approaches integrate textual guidance or visual trajectory into decision networks to provide task-specific contextual cues, representing a promising direction. However, it is observed that relying solely on textual guidance or visual trajectory is insufficient for accurately conveying the contextual information of tasks. This paper explores enhanced forms of task guidance for agents, enabling them to comprehend gameplay instructions, thereby facilitating a "read-to-play" capability. Drawing inspiration from the success of multimodal instruction tuning in visual tasks, we treat the visual-based RL task as a long-horizon vision task and construct a set of multimodal game instructions to incorporate instruction tuning into a decision transformer. Experimental results demonstrate that incorporating multimodal game instructions significantly enhances the decision transformer's multitasking and generalization capabilities.
Image-to-video (I2V) generation aims to use the initial frame (alongside a text prompt) to create a video sequence. A grand challenge in I2V generation is to maintain visual consistency throughout the video: existing methods often struggle to preserve the integrity of the subject, background, and style from the first frame, as well as ensure a fluid and logical progression within the video narrative. To mitigate these issues, we propose ConsistI2V, a diffusion-based method to enhance visual consistency for I2V generation. Specifically, we introduce (1) spatiotemporal attention over the first frame to maintain spatial and motion consistency, (2) noise initialization from the low-frequency band of the first frame to enhance layout consistency. These two approaches enable ConsistI2V to generate highly consistent videos. We also extend the proposed approaches to show their potential to improve consistency in auto-regressive long video generation and camera motion control. To verify the effectiveness of our method, we propose I2V-Bench, a comprehensive evaluation benchmark for I2V generation. Our automatic and human evaluation results demonstrate the superiority of ConsistI2V over existing methods.
Pre-trained language models (LMs) are able to perform complex reasoning without explicit fine-tuning. To understand how pre-training with a next-token prediction objective contributes to the emergence of such reasoning capability, we propose that we can view an LM as deriving new conclusions by aggregating indirect reasoning paths seen at pre-training time. We found this perspective effective in two important cases of reasoning: logic reasoning with knowledge graphs (KGs) and math reasoning with math word problems (MWPs). More specifically, we formalize the reasoning paths as random walk paths on the knowledge/reasoning graphs. Analyses of learned LM distributions suggest that a weighted sum of relevant random walk path probabilities is a reasonable way to explain how LMs reason. Experiments and analysis on multiple KG and MWP datasets reveal the effect of training on random walk paths and suggest that augmenting unlabeled random walk reasoning paths can improve real-world multi-step reasoning performance.
Multi-modal information retrieval (MMIR) is a rapidly evolving field, where significant progress, particularly in image-text pairing, has been made through advanced representation learning and cross-modality alignment research. However, current benchmarks for evaluating MMIR performance in image-text pairing within the scientific domain show a notable gap, where chart and table images described in scholarly language usually do not play a significant role. To bridge this gap, we develop a specialised scientific MMIR (SciMMIR) benchmark by leveraging open-access paper collections to extract data relevant to the scientific domain. This benchmark comprises 530K meticulously curated image-text pairs, extracted from figures and tables with detailed captions in scientific documents. We further annotate the image-text pairs with two-level subset-subcategory hierarchy annotations to facilitate a more comprehensive evaluation of the baselines. We conducted zero-shot and fine-tuning evaluations on prominent multi-modal image-captioning and visual language models, such as CLIP and BLIP. Our analysis offers critical insights for MMIR in the scientific domain, including the impact of pre-training and fine-tuning settings and the influence of the visual and textual encoders. All our data and checkpoints are publicly available at https://github.com/Wusiwei0410/SciMMIR.
As the capabilities of large multimodal models (LMMs) continue to advance, evaluating the performance of LMMs emerges as an increasing need. Additionally, there is an even larger gap in evaluating the advanced knowledge and reasoning abilities of LMMs in non-English contexts such as Chinese. We introduce CMMMU, a new Chinese Massive Multi-discipline Multimodal Understanding benchmark designed to evaluate LMMs on tasks demanding college-level subject knowledge and deliberate reasoning in a Chinese context. CMMMU is inspired by and strictly follows the annotation and analysis pattern of MMMU. CMMMU includes 12k manually collected multimodal questions from college exams, quizzes, and textbooks, covering six core disciplines: Art & Design, Business, Science, Health & Medicine, Humanities & Social Science, and Tech & Engineering, like its companion, MMMU. These questions span 30 subjects and comprise 39 highly heterogeneous image types, such as charts, diagrams, maps, tables, music sheets, and chemical structures. CMMMU focuses on complex perception and reasoning with domain-specific knowledge in the Chinese context. We evaluate 11 open-source LLMs and one proprietary GPT-4V(ision). Even GPT-4V only achieves accuracies of 42%, indicating a large space for improvement. CMMMU will boost the community to build the next-generation LMMs towards expert artificial intelligence and promote the democratization of LMMs by providing diverse language contexts.
Typically, training LLMs with long context sizes is computationally expensive, requiring extensive training hours and GPU resources. Existing long-context extension methods usually need additional training procedures to support corresponding long-context windows, where the long-context training data (e.g., 32k) is needed, and high GPU training costs are assumed. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an Efficient and Extreme length extension method for Large Language Models, called E 2 -LLM, with only one training procedure and dramatically reduced computation cost, which also removes the need to collect long-context data. Concretely, first, the training data of our E 2 -LLM only requires a short length (e.g., 4k), which reduces the tuning cost greatly. Second, the training procedure on the short training context window is performed only once time, and we can support different evaluation context windows at inference. Third, in E 2 - LLM, based on RoPE position embeddings, we introduce two different augmentation methods on the scale and position index parameters for different samples in training. It aims to make the model more robust to the different relative differences when directly interpolating the arbitrary context length at inference. Comprehensive experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our E 2 -LLM on challenging long-context tasks.
In this paper, we introduce Kun, a novel approach for creating high-quality instruction-tuning datasets for large language models (LLMs) without relying on manual annotations. Adapting a self-training algorithm based on instruction back-translation and answer polishment, Kun leverages unlabelled data from diverse sources such as Wudao, Wanjuan, and SkyPile to generate a substantial dataset of over a million Chinese instructional data points. This approach significantly deviates from traditional methods by using a self-curation process to refine and select the most effective instruction-output pairs. Our experiments with the 6B-parameter Yi model across various benchmarks demonstrate Kun's robustness and scalability. Our method's core contributions lie in its algorithmic advancement, which enhances data retention and clarity, and its innovative data generation approach that substantially reduces the reliance on costly and time-consuming manual annotations. This methodology presents a scalable and efficient solution for improving the instruction-following capabilities of LLMs, with significant implications for their application across diverse fields. The code and dataset can be found at https://github.com/Zheng0428/COIG-Kun
This paper presents instruct-imagen, a model that tackles heterogeneous image generation tasks and generalizes across unseen tasks. We introduce *multi-modal instruction* for image generation, a task representation articulating a range of generation intents with precision. It uses natural language to amalgamate disparate modalities (e.g., text, edge, style, subject, etc.), such that abundant generation intents can be standardized in a uniform format. We then build instruct-imagen by fine-tuning a pre-trained text-to-image diffusion model with a two-stage framework. First, we adapt the model using the retrieval-augmented training, to enhance model's capabilities to ground its generation on external multimodal context. Subsequently, we fine-tune the adapted model on diverse image generation tasks that requires vision-language understanding (e.g., subject-driven generation, etc.), each paired with a multi-modal instruction encapsulating the task's essence. Human evaluation on various image generation datasets reveals that instruct-imagen matches or surpasses prior task-specific models in-domain and demonstrates promising generalization to unseen and more complex tasks.
In the rapidly advancing field of conditional image generation research, challenges such as limited explainability lie in effectively evaluating the performance and capabilities of various models. This paper introduces VIESCORE, a Visual Instruction-guided Explainable metric for evaluating any conditional image generation tasks. VIESCORE leverages general knowledge from Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) as the backbone and does not require training or fine-tuning. We evaluate VIESCORE on seven prominent tasks in conditional image tasks and found: (1) VIESCORE (GPT4-v) achieves a high Spearman correlation of 0.3 with human evaluations, while the human-to-human correlation is 0.45. (2) VIESCORE (with open-source MLLM) is significantly weaker than GPT-4v in evaluating synthetic images. (3) VIESCORE achieves a correlation on par with human ratings in the generation tasks but struggles in editing tasks. With these results, we believe VIESCORE shows its great potential to replace human judges in evaluating image synthesis tasks.