The data used to pretrain large language models has a decisive impact on a model's downstream performance, which has led to a large body of work on data selection methods that aim to automatically determine the most suitable data to use for pretraining. Existing data selection methods suffer from slow and computationally expensive processes, a problem amplified by the increasing size of models and of pretraining datasets. Data mixing, on the other hand, reduces the complexity of data selection by grouping data points together and determining sampling probabilities across entire groups. However, data mixing proportions are typically fixed before training and therefore cannot adapt to changing training dynamics. To address these limitations, we develop an efficient algorithm for Online Data Mixing (ODM) that combines elements from both data selection and data mixing. Based on multi-armed bandit algorithms, our online approach optimizes the data mixing proportions during training. Remarkably, our method trains a model that reaches the final perplexity of the next best method with 19\% fewer training iterations, and improves performance on the 5-shot MMLU benchmark by 1.9% relative accuracy, while adding negligible wall-clock time during pretraining.
We introduce VISUAL EMBEDDED INSTRUCTION (VIM), a new framework designed to evaluate the visual instruction following capability of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs). As illustrated in Figure 2, VIM challenges the MLLMs by embedding the instructions into the visual scenes, demanding strong visual interpretative skills for instruction following. We adapt VIM to various benchmarks, including VQAv2, MME, MM-Vet, and RefCOCO series, compose a VIM bench, and probe diverse MLLMs across three distinct in-context learning settings: Zero Shot, One Shot, and Pair Shot. We observe that there is a significant performance disparity between the open-source MLLMs and GPT-4V, implying that their proficiency in visual instruction comprehension is not up to par. Our results highlight a promising direction for the enhancement of MLLMs capabilities on instruction following. We aim VIM to serve as a useful norm for advancing the state of the art and driving further progress in the field.
Recent improvements in text generation have leveraged human feedback to improve the quality of the generated output. However, human feedback is not always available, especially during inference. In this work, we propose an inference time optimization method FITO to use fine-grained actionable feedback in the form of error type, error location and severity level that are predicted by a learned error pinpoint model for iterative refinement. FITO starts with an initial output, then iteratively incorporates the feedback via a refinement model that generates an improved output conditioned on the feedback. Given the uncertainty of consistent refined samples at iterative steps, we formulate iterative refinement into a local search problem and develop a simulated annealing based algorithm that balances exploration of the search space and optimization for output quality. We conduct experiments on three text generation tasks, including machine translation, long-form question answering (QA) and topical summarization. We observe 0.8 and 0.7 MetricX gain on Chinese-English and English-German translation, 4.5 and 1.8 ROUGE-L gain at long form QA and topic summarization respectively, with a single iteration of refinement. With our simulated annealing algorithm, we see further quality improvements, including up to 1.7 MetricX improvements over the baseline approach.
Automatically evaluating vision-language tasks is challenging, especially when it comes to reflecting human judgments due to limitations in accounting for fine-grained details. Although GPT-4V has shown promising results in various multi-modal tasks, leveraging GPT-4V as a generalist evaluator for these tasks has not yet been systematically explored. We comprehensively validate GPT-4V's capabilities for evaluation purposes, addressing tasks ranging from foundational image-to-text and text-to-image synthesis to high-level image-to-image translations and multi-images to text alignment. We employ two evaluation methods, single-answer grading and pairwise comparison, using GPT-4V. Notably, GPT-4V shows promising agreement with humans across various tasks and evaluation methods, demonstrating immense potential for multi-modal LLMs as evaluators. Despite limitations like restricted visual clarity grading and real-world complex reasoning, its ability to provide human-aligned scores enriched with detailed explanations is promising for universal automatic evaluator.
The burgeoning capabilities of advanced large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT have led to an increase in synthetic content generation with implications across a variety of sectors, including media, cybersecurity, public discourse, and education. As such, the ability to detect LLMs-generated content has become of paramount importance. We aim to provide a detailed overview of existing detection strategies and benchmarks, scrutinizing their differences and identifying key challenges and prospects in the field, advocating for more adaptable and robust models to enhance detection accuracy. We also posit the necessity for a multi-faceted approach to defend against various attacks to counter the rapidly advancing capabilities of LLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first comprehensive survey on the detection in the era of LLMs. We hope it will provide a broad understanding of the current landscape of LLMs-generated content detection, offering a guiding reference for researchers and practitioners striving to uphold the integrity of digital information in an era increasingly dominated by synthetic content. The relevant papers are summarized and will be consistently updated at https://github.com/Xianjun-Yang/Awesome_papers_on_LLMs_detection.git.
Language Models (LMs) have shown impressive performance in various natural language tasks. However, when it comes to natural language reasoning, LMs still face challenges such as hallucination, generating incorrect intermediate reasoning steps, and making mathematical errors. Recent research has focused on enhancing LMs through self-improvement using feedback. Nevertheless, existing approaches relying on a single generic feedback source fail to address the diverse error types found in LM-generated reasoning chains. In this work, we propose Multi-Aspect Feedback, an iterative refinement framework that integrates multiple feedback modules, including frozen LMs and external tools, each focusing on a specific error category. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach to addressing several errors in the LM-generated reasoning chain and thus improving the overall performance of an LM in several reasoning tasks. We see a relative improvement of up to 20% in Mathematical Reasoning and up to 18% in Logical Entailment.
Prompt-based learning has been demonstrated as a compelling paradigm contributing to large language models' tremendous success (LLMs). Inspired by their success in language tasks, existing research has leveraged LLMs in embodied instruction following and task planning. However, not much attention has been paid to embodied tasks with multimodal prompts, combining vision signals with text descriptions. This type of task poses a major challenge to robots' capability to understand the interconnection and complementarity between vision and language signals. In this work, we introduce an effective framework that learns a policy to perform robot manipulation with multimodal prompts from multi-task expert trajectories. Our methods consist of a two-stage training pipeline that performs inverse dynamics pretraining and multi-task finetuning. To facilitate multimodal understanding, we design our multimodal prompt encoder by augmenting a pretrained LM with a residual connection to the visual input and model the dependencies among action dimensions. Empirically, we evaluate the efficacy of our method on the VIMA-BENCH and establish a new state-of-the-art (10% improvement in success rate). Moreover, we demonstrate that our model exhibits remarkable in-context learning ability.
As large language models are integrated into society, robustness toward a suite of prompts is increasingly important to maintain reliability in a high-variance environment.Robustness evaluations must comprehensively encapsulate the various settings in which a user may invoke an intelligent system. This paper proposes ASSERT, Automated Safety Scenario Red Teaming, consisting of three methods -- semantically aligned augmentation, target bootstrapping, and adversarial knowledge injection. For robust safety evaluation, we apply these methods in the critical domain of AI safety to algorithmically generate a test suite of prompts covering diverse robustness settings -- semantic equivalence, related scenarios, and adversarial. We partition our prompts into four safety domains for a fine-grained analysis of how the domain affects model performance. Despite dedicated safeguards in existing state-of-the-art models, we find statistically significant performance differences of up to 11% in absolute classification accuracy among semantically related scenarios and error rates of up to 19% absolute error in zero-shot adversarial settings, raising concerns for users' physical safety.
Mental illness remains one of the most critical public health issues of our time, due to the severe scarcity and accessibility limit of professionals. Psychotherapy requires high-level expertise to conduct deep, complex reasoning and analysis on the cognition modeling of the patients. In the era of Large Language Models, we believe it is the right time to develop AI assistance for computational psychotherapy. We study the task of cognitive distortion detection and propose the Diagnosis of Thought (DoT) prompting. DoT performs diagnosis on the patient's speech via three stages: subjectivity assessment to separate the facts and the thoughts; contrastive reasoning to elicit the reasoning processes supporting and contradicting the thoughts; and schema analysis to summarize the cognition schemas. The generated diagnosis rationales through the three stages are essential for assisting the professionals. Experiments demonstrate that DoT obtains significant improvements over ChatGPT for cognitive distortion detection, while generating high-quality rationales approved by human experts.
This work proposes a training-free approach for the detection of LLMs-generated codes, mitigating the risks associated with their indiscriminate usage. To the best of our knowledge, our research is the first to investigate zero-shot detection techniques applied to code generated by advanced black-box LLMs like ChatGPT. Firstly, we find that existing training-based or zero-shot text detectors are ineffective in detecting code, likely due to the unique statistical properties found in code structures. We then modify the previous zero-shot text detection method, DetectGPT (Mitchell et al., 2023) by utilizing a surrogate white-box model to estimate the probability of the rightmost tokens, allowing us to identify code snippets generated by language models. Through extensive experiments conducted on the python codes of the CodeContest and APPS dataset, our approach demonstrates its effectiveness by achieving state-of-the-art detection results on text-davinci-003, GPT-3.5, and GPT-4 models. Moreover, our method exhibits robustness against revision attacks and generalizes well to Java codes. We also find that the smaller code language model like PolyCoder-160M performs as a universal code detector, outperforming the billion-scale counterpart. The codes will be available at https://github.com/ Xianjun-Yang/Code_detection.git