Voucher abuse detection is an important anomaly detection problem in E-commerce. While many GNN-based solutions have emerged, the supervised paradigm depends on a large quantity of labeled data. A popular alternative is to adopt self-supervised pre-training using label-free data, and further fine-tune on a downstream task with limited labels. Nevertheless, the "pre-train, fine-tune" paradigm is often plagued by the objective gap between pre-training and downstream tasks. Hence, we propose VPGNN, a prompt-based fine-tuning framework on GNNs for voucher abuse detection. We design a novel graph prompting function to reformulate the downstream task into a similar template as the pretext task in pre-training, thereby narrowing the objective gap. Extensive experiments on both proprietary and public datasets demonstrate the strength of VPGNN in both few-shot and semi-supervised scenarios. Moreover, an online deployment of VPGNN in a production environment shows a 23.4% improvement over two existing deployed models.
Both transduction and rejection have emerged as important techniques for defending against adversarial perturbations. A recent work by Tram\`er showed that, in the rejection-only case (no transduction), a strong rejection-solution can be turned into a strong (but computationally inefficient) non-rejection solution. This detector-to-classifier reduction has been mostly applied to give evidence that certain claims of strong selective-model solutions are susceptible, leaving the benefits of rejection unclear. On the other hand, a recent work by Goldwasser et al. showed that rejection combined with transduction can give provable guarantees (for certain problems) that cannot be achieved otherwise. Nevertheless, under recent strong adversarial attacks (GMSA, which has been shown to be much more effective than AutoAttack against transduction), Goldwasser et al.'s work was shown to have low performance in a practical deep-learning setting. In this paper, we take a step towards realizing the promise of transduction+rejection in more realistic scenarios. Theoretically, we show that a novel application of Tram\`er's classifier-to-detector technique in the transductive setting can give significantly improved sample-complexity for robust generalization. While our theoretical construction is computationally inefficient, it guides us to identify an efficient transductive algorithm to learn a selective model. Extensive experiments using state of the art attacks (AutoAttack, GMSA) show that our solutions provide significantly better robust accuracy.
Surface roughness and texture are critical to the functional performance of engineering components. The ability to analyze roughness and texture effectively and efficiently is much needed to ensure surface quality in many surface generation processes, such as machining, surface mechanical treatment, etc. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are two commonly used signal decomposition tools for surface roughness and texture analysis. Both methods require selecting a threshold to decompose a given surface into its three main components: form, waviness, and roughness. However, although DWT and DCT are part of the ISO surface finish standards, there exists no systematic guidance on how to compute these thresholds, and they are often manually selected on case by case basis. This makes utilizing these methods for studying surfaces dependent on the user's judgment and limits their automation potential. Therefore, we present two automatic threshold selection algorithms based on information theory and signal energy. We use machine learning to validate the success of our algorithms both using simulated surfaces as well as digital microscopy images of machined surfaces. Specifically, we generate feature vectors for each surface area or profile and apply supervised classification. Comparing our results with the heuristic threshold selection approach shows good agreement with mean accuracies as high as 95\%. We also compare our results with Gaussian filtering (GF) and show that while GF results for areas can yield slightly higher accuracies, our results outperform GF for surface profiles. We further show that our automatic threshold selection has significant advantages in terms of computational time as evidenced by decreasing the number of mode computations by an order of magnitude compared to the heuristic thresholding for DCT.
There has been emerging interest in using transductive learning for adversarial robustness (Goldwasser et al., NeurIPS 2020; Wu et al., ICML 2020; Wang et al., ArXiv 2021). Compared to traditional defenses, these defense mechanisms "dynamically learn" the model based on test-time input; and theoretically, attacking these defenses reduces to solving a bilevel optimization problem, which poses difficulty in crafting adaptive attacks. In this paper, we examine these defense mechanisms from a principled threat analysis perspective. We formulate and analyze threat models for transductive-learning based defenses, and point out important subtleties. We propose the principle of attacking model space for solving bilevel attack objectives, and present Greedy Model Space Attack (GMSA), an attack framework that can serve as a new baseline for evaluating transductive-learning based defenses. Through systematic evaluation, we show that GMSA, even with weak instantiations, can break previous transductive-learning based defenses, which were resilient to previous attacks, such as AutoAttack (Croce and Hein, ICML 2020). On the positive side, we report a somewhat surprising empirical result of "transductive adversarial training": Adversarially retraining the model using fresh randomness at the test time gives a significant increase in robustness against attacks we consider.
Due to the vulnerability of deep neural networks (DNNs) to adversarial examples, a large number of defense techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem in recent years. However, the progress of building more robust models is usually hampered by the incomplete or incorrect robustness evaluation. To accelerate the research on reliable evaluation of adversarial robustness of the current defense models in image classification, the TSAIL group at Tsinghua University and the Alibaba Security group organized this competition along with a CVPR 2021 workshop on adversarial machine learning (https://aisecure-workshop.github.io/amlcvpr2021/). The purpose of this competition is to motivate novel attack algorithms to evaluate adversarial robustness more effectively and reliably. The participants were encouraged to develop stronger white-box attack algorithms to find the worst-case robustness of different defenses. This competition was conducted on an adversarial robustness evaluation platform -- ARES (https://github.com/thu-ml/ares), and is held on the TianChi platform (https://tianchi.aliyun.com/competition/entrance/531847/introduction) as one of the series of AI Security Challengers Program. After the competition, we summarized the results and established a new adversarial robustness benchmark at https://ml.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn/ares-bench/, which allows users to upload adversarial attack algorithms and defense models for evaluation.
Domain shift happens in cross-domain scenarios commonly because of the wide gaps between different domains: when applying a deep learning model well-trained in one domain to another target domain, the model usually performs poorly. To tackle this problem, unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) techniques are proposed to bridge the gap between different domains, for the purpose of improving model performance without annotation in the target domain. Particularly, UDA has a great value for multimodal medical image analysis, where annotation difficulty is a practical concern. However, most existing UDA methods can only achieve satisfactory improvements in one adaptation direction (e.g., MRI to CT), but often perform poorly in the other (CT to MRI), limiting their practical usage. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional UDA (BiUDA) framework based on disentangled representation learning for equally competent two-way UDA performances. This framework employs a unified domain-aware pattern encoder which not only can adaptively encode images in different domains through a domain controller, but also improve model efficiency by eliminating redundant parameters. Furthermore, to avoid distortion of contents and patterns of input images during the adaptation process, a content-pattern consistency loss is introduced. Additionally, for better UDA segmentation performance, a label consistency strategy is proposed to provide extra supervision by recomposing target-domain-styled images and corresponding source-domain annotations. Comparison experiments and ablation studies conducted on two public datasets demonstrate the superiority of our BiUDA framework to current state-of-the-art UDA methods and the effectiveness of its novel designs. By successfully addressing two-way adaptations, our BiUDA framework offers a flexible solution of UDA techniques to the real-world scenario.
Mining dense subgraphs where vertices connect closely with each other is a common task when analyzing graphs. A very popular notion in subgraph analysis is core decomposition. Recently, Esfahani et al. presented a probabilistic core decomposition algorithm based on graph peeling and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) that is capable of handling very large graphs. Their proposed peeling algorithm (PA) starts from the lowest degree vertices and recursively deletes these vertices, assigning core numbers, and updating the degree of neighbour vertices until it reached the maximum core. However, in many applications, particularly in biology, more valuable information can be obtained from dense sub-communities and we are not interested in small cores where vertices do not interact much with others. To make the previous PA focus more on dense subgraphs, we propose a multi-stage graph peeling algorithm (M-PA) that has a two-stage data screening procedure added before the previous PA. After removing vertices from the graph based on the user-defined thresholds, we can reduce the graph complexity largely and without affecting the vertices in subgraphs that we are interested in. We show that M-PA is more efficient than the previous PA and with the properly set filtering threshold, can produce very similar if not identical dense subgraphs to the previous PA (in terms of graph density and clustering coefficient).
There has been emerging interest to use transductive learning for adversarial robustness (Goldwasser et al., NeurIPS 2020; Wu et al., ICML 2020). Compared to traditional "test-time" defenses, these defense mechanisms "dynamically retrain" the model based on test time input via transductive learning; and theoretically, attacking these defenses boils down to bilevel optimization, which seems to raise the difficulty for adaptive attacks. In this paper, we first formalize and analyze modeling aspects of transductive robustness. Then, we propose the principle of attacking model space for solving bilevel attack objectives, and present an instantiation of the principle which breaks previous transductive defenses. These attacks thus point to significant difficulties in the use of transductive learning to improve adversarial robustness. To this end, we present new theoretical and empirical evidence in support of the utility of transductive learning.
With the rising demand of smart mobility, ride-hailing service is getting popular in the urban regions. These services maintain a system for serving the incoming trip requests by dispatching available vehicles to the pickup points. As the process should be socially and economically profitable, the task of vehicle dispatching is highly challenging, specially due to the time-varying travel demands and traffic conditions. Due to the uneven distribution of travel demands, many idle vehicles could be generated during the operation in different subareas. Most of the existing works on vehicle dispatching system, designed static relocation centers to relocate idle vehicles. However, as traffic conditions and demand distribution dynamically change over time, the static solution can not fit the evolving situations. In this paper, we propose a dynamic future demand aware vehicle dispatching system. It can dynamically search the relocation centers considering both travel demand and traffic conditions. We evaluate the system on real-world dataset, and compare with the existing state-of-the-art methods in our experiments in terms of several standard evaluation metrics and operation time. Through our experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed system significantly improves the serving ratio and with a very small increase in operation cost.