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Hang Su

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Machine Vision Therapy: Multimodal Large Language Models Can Enhance Visual Robustness via Denoising In-Context Learning

Dec 05, 2023
Zhuo Huang, Chang Liu, Yinpeng Dong, Hang Su, Shibao Zheng, Tongliang Liu

Although vision models such as Contrastive Language-Image Pre-Training (CLIP) show impressive generalization performance, their zero-shot robustness is still limited under Out-of-Distribution (OOD) scenarios without fine-tuning. Instead of undesirably providing human supervision as commonly done, it is possible to take advantage of Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) that hold powerful visual understanding abilities. However, MLLMs are shown to struggle with vision problems due to the incompatibility of tasks, thus hindering their utilization. In this paper, we propose to effectively leverage MLLMs to conduct Machine Vision Therapy which aims to rectify the noisy predictions from vision models. By fine-tuning with the denoised labels, the learning model performance can be boosted in an unsupervised manner. To solve the incompatibility issue, we propose a novel Denoising In-Context Learning (DICL) strategy to align vision tasks with MLLMs. Concretely, by estimating a transition matrix that captures the probability of one class being confused with another, an instruction containing a correct exemplar and an erroneous one from the most probable noisy class can be constructed. Such an instruction can help any MLLMs with ICL ability to detect and rectify incorrect predictions of vision models. Through extensive experiments on ImageNet, WILDS, DomainBed, and other OOD datasets, we carefully validate the quantitative and qualitative effectiveness of our method. Our code is available at

* 37 pages, 19 figures, and 13 tables 
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Evil Geniuses: Delving into the Safety of LLM-based Agents

Nov 20, 2023
Yu Tian, Xiao Yang, Jingyuan Zhang, Yinpeng Dong, Hang Su

The rapid advancements in large language models (LLMs) have led to a resurgence in LLM-based agents, which demonstrate impressive human-like behaviors and cooperative capabilities in various interactions and strategy formulations. However, evaluating the safety of LLM-based agents remains a complex challenge. This paper elaborately conducts a series of manual jailbreak prompts along with a virtual chat-powered evil plan development team, dubbed Evil Geniuses, to thoroughly probe the safety aspects of these agents. Our investigation reveals three notable phenomena: 1) LLM-based agents exhibit reduced robustness against malicious attacks. 2) the attacked agents could provide more nuanced responses. 3) the detection of the produced improper responses is more challenging. These insights prompt us to question the effectiveness of LLM-based attacks on agents, highlighting vulnerabilities at various levels and within different role specializations within the system/agent of LLM-based agents. Extensive evaluation and discussion reveal that LLM-based agents face significant challenges in safety and yield insights for future research. Our code is available at

* 13 pages 
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LLaVA-Plus: Learning to Use Tools for Creating Multimodal Agents

Nov 09, 2023
Shilong Liu, Hao Cheng, Haotian Liu, Hao Zhang, Feng Li, Tianhe Ren, Xueyan Zou, Jianwei Yang, Hang Su, Jun Zhu, Lei Zhang, Jianfeng Gao, Chunyuan Li

LLaVA-Plus is a general-purpose multimodal assistant that expands the capabilities of large multimodal models. It maintains a skill repository of pre-trained vision and vision-language models and can activate relevant tools based on users' inputs to fulfill real-world tasks. LLaVA-Plus is trained on multimodal instruction-following data to acquire the ability to use tools, covering visual understanding, generation, external knowledge retrieval, and compositions. Empirical results show that LLaVA-Plus outperforms LLaVA in existing capabilities and exhibits new ones. It is distinct in that the image query is directly grounded and actively engaged throughout the entire human-AI interaction sessions, significantly improving tool use performance and enabling new scenarios.

* 25 pages, 25M file size. Project Page: 
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Multi-view learning for automatic classification of multi-wavelength auroral images

Nov 06, 2023
Qiuju Yang, Hang Su, Lili Liu, Yixuan Wang, Ze-Jun Hu

Auroral classification plays a crucial role in polar research. However, current auroral classification studies are predominantly based on images taken at a single wavelength, typically 557.7 nm. Images obtained at other wavelengths have been comparatively overlooked, and the integration of information from multiple wavelengths remains an underexplored area. This limitation results in low classification rates for complex auroral patterns. Furthermore, these studies, whether employing traditional machine learning or deep learning approaches, have not achieved a satisfactory trade-off between accuracy and speed. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a lightweight auroral multi-wavelength fusion classification network, MLCNet, based on a multi-view approach. Firstly, we develop a lightweight feature extraction backbone, called LCTNet, to improve the classification rate and cope with the increasing amount of auroral observation data. Secondly, considering the existence of multi-scale spatial structures in auroras, we design a novel multi-scale reconstructed feature module named MSRM. Finally, to highlight the discriminative information between auroral classes, we propose a lightweight attention feature enhancement module called LAFE. The proposed method is validated using observational data from the Arctic Yellow River Station during 2003-2004. Experimental results demonstrate that the fusion of multi-wavelength information effectively improves the auroral classification performance. In particular, our approach achieves state-of-the-art classification accuracy compared to previous auroral classification studies, and superior results in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency compared to existing multi-view methods.

* This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible 
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Improved Operator Learning by Orthogonal Attention

Oct 23, 2023
Zipeng Xiao, Zhongkai Hao, Bokai Lin, Zhijie Deng, Hang Su

Neural operators, as an efficient surrogate model for learning the solutions of PDEs, have received extensive attention in the field of scientific machine learning. Among them, attention-based neural operators have become one of the mainstreams in related research. However, existing approaches overfit the limited training data due to the considerable number of parameters in the attention mechanism. To address this, we develop an orthogonal attention based on the eigendecomposition of the kernel integral operator and the neural approximation of eigenfunctions. The orthogonalization naturally poses a proper regularization effect on the resulting neural operator, which aids in resisting overfitting and boosting generalization. Experiments on six standard neural operator benchmark datasets comprising both regular and irregular geometries show that our method can outperform competing baselines with decent margins.

* 14 pages, 5 figures 
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Mobile AR Depth Estimation: Challenges & Prospects -- Extended Version

Oct 22, 2023
Ashkan Ganj, Yiqin Zhao, Hang Su, Tian Guo

Metric depth estimation plays an important role in mobile augmented reality (AR). With accurate metric depth, we can achieve more realistic user interactions such as object placement and occlusion detection. While specialized hardware like LiDAR demonstrates its promise, its restricted availability, i.e., only on selected high-end mobile devices, and performance limitations such as range and sensitivity to the environment, make it less ideal. Monocular depth estimation, on the other hand, relies solely on mobile cameras, which are ubiquitous, making it a promising alternative for mobile AR. In this paper, we investigate the challenges and opportunities of achieving accurate metric depth estimation in mobile AR. We tested four different state-of-the-art monocular depth estimation models on a newly introduced dataset (ARKitScenes) and identified three types of challenges: hard-ware, data, and model related challenges. Furthermore, our research provides promising future directions to explore and solve those challenges. These directions include (i) using more hardware-related information from the mobile device's camera and other available sensors, (ii) capturing high-quality data to reflect real-world AR scenarios, and (iii) designing a model architecture to utilize the new information.

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Towards a General Framework for Continual Learning with Pre-training

Oct 21, 2023
Liyuan Wang, Jingyi Xie, Xingxing Zhang, Hang Su, Jun Zhu

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In this work, we present a general framework for continual learning of sequentially arrived tasks with the use of pre-training, which has emerged as a promising direction for artificial intelligence systems to accommodate real-world dynamics. From a theoretical perspective, we decompose its objective into three hierarchical components, including within-task prediction, task-identity inference, and task-adaptive prediction. Then we propose an innovative approach to explicitly optimize these components with parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) techniques and representation statistics. We empirically demonstrate the superiority and generality of our approach in downstream continual learning, and further explore the applicability of PEFT techniques in upstream continual learning. We also discuss the biological basis of the proposed framework with recent advances in neuroscience.

* This is a generalized version of our HiDe-Prompt and will be presented in the IMOL workshop in NeurIPS 2023. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2310.07234 
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Enhancing Abstractiveness of Summarization Models through Calibrated Distillation

Oct 20, 2023
Hwanjun Song, Igor Shalyminov, Hang Su, Siffi Singh, Kaisheng Yao, Saab Mansour

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Sequence-level knowledge distillation reduces the size of Seq2Seq models for more efficient abstractive summarization. However, it often leads to a loss of abstractiveness in summarization. In this paper, we propose a novel approach named DisCal to enhance the level of abstractiveness (measured by n-gram overlap) without sacrificing the informativeness (measured by ROUGE) of generated summaries. DisCal exposes diverse pseudo summaries with two supervision to the student model. Firstly, the best pseudo summary is identified in terms of abstractiveness and informativeness and used for sequence-level distillation. Secondly, their ranks are used to ensure the student model to assign higher prediction scores to summaries with higher ranks. Our experiments show that DisCal outperforms prior methods in abstractive summarization distillation, producing highly abstractive and informative summaries.

* Accepted at EMNLP-Findings 2023 
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Overcoming Recency Bias of Normalization Statistics in Continual Learning: Balance and Adaptation

Oct 13, 2023
Yilin Lyu, Liyuan Wang, Xingxing Zhang, Zicheng Sun, Hang Su, Jun Zhu, Liping Jing

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Continual learning entails learning a sequence of tasks and balancing their knowledge appropriately. With limited access to old training samples, much of the current work in deep neural networks has focused on overcoming catastrophic forgetting of old tasks in gradient-based optimization. However, the normalization layers provide an exception, as they are updated interdependently by the gradient and statistics of currently observed training samples, which require specialized strategies to mitigate recency bias. In this work, we focus on the most popular Batch Normalization (BN) and provide an in-depth theoretical analysis of its sub-optimality in continual learning. Our analysis demonstrates the dilemma between balance and adaptation of BN statistics for incremental tasks, which potentially affects training stability and generalization. Targeting on these particular challenges, we propose Adaptive Balance of BN (AdaB$^2$N), which incorporates appropriately a Bayesian-based strategy to adapt task-wise contributions and a modified momentum to balance BN statistics, corresponding to the training and testing stages. By implementing BN in a continual learning fashion, our approach achieves significant performance gains across a wide range of benchmarks, particularly for the challenging yet realistic online scenarios (e.g., up to 7.68%, 6.86% and 4.26% on Split CIFAR-10, Split CIFAR-100 and Split Mini-ImageNet, respectively). Our code is available at

* Accepted by NeurIPS 2023 
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