Large language models (LLMs) have recently shown great advances in a variety of tasks, including natural language understanding and generation. However, their use in high-stakes decision-making scenarios is still limited due to the potential for errors. Selective prediction is a technique that can be used to improve the reliability of the LLMs by allowing them to abstain from making predictions when they are unsure of the answer. In this work, we propose a novel framework for adaptation with self-evaluation to improve the selective prediction performance of LLMs. Our framework is based on the idea of using parameter-efficient tuning to adapt the LLM to the specific task at hand while improving its ability to perform self-evaluation. We evaluate our method on a variety of question-answering (QA) datasets and show that it outperforms state-of-the-art selective prediction methods. For example, on the CoQA benchmark, our method improves the AUACC from 91.23% to 92.63% and improves the AUROC from 74.61% to 80.25%.
* Paper published at Findings of the Association for Computational
Linguistics: EMNLP, 2023
Both transduction and rejection have emerged as important techniques for defending against adversarial perturbations. A recent work by Tram\`er showed that, in the rejection-only case (no transduction), a strong rejection-solution can be turned into a strong (but computationally inefficient) non-rejection solution. This detector-to-classifier reduction has been mostly applied to give evidence that certain claims of strong selective-model solutions are susceptible, leaving the benefits of rejection unclear. On the other hand, a recent work by Goldwasser et al. showed that rejection combined with transduction can give provable guarantees (for certain problems) that cannot be achieved otherwise. Nevertheless, under recent strong adversarial attacks (GMSA, which has been shown to be much more effective than AutoAttack against transduction), Goldwasser et al.'s work was shown to have low performance in a practical deep-learning setting. In this paper, we take a step towards realizing the promise of transduction+rejection in more realistic scenarios. Theoretically, we show that a novel application of Tram\`er's classifier-to-detector technique in the transductive setting can give significantly improved sample-complexity for robust generalization. While our theoretical construction is computationally inefficient, it guides us to identify an efficient transductive algorithm to learn a selective model. Extensive experiments using state of the art attacks (AutoAttack, GMSA) show that our solutions provide significantly better robust accuracy.
Recently, there is an emerging interest in adversarially training a classifier with a rejection option (also known as a selective classifier) for boosting adversarial robustness. While rejection can incur a cost in many applications, existing studies typically associate zero cost with rejecting perturbed inputs, which can result in the rejection of numerous slightly-perturbed inputs that could be correctly classified. In this work, we study adversarially-robust classification with rejection in the stratified rejection setting, where the rejection cost is modeled by rejection loss functions monotonically non-increasing in the perturbation magnitude. We theoretically analyze the stratified rejection setting and propose a novel defense method -- Adversarial Training with Consistent Prediction-based Rejection (CPR) -- for building a robust selective classifier. Experiments on image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods under strong adaptive attacks. For instance, on CIFAR-10, CPR reduces the total robust loss (for different rejection losses) by at least 7.3% under both seen and unseen attacks.
* Paper published at International Conference on Machine Learning
Selective prediction aims to learn a reliable model that abstains from making predictions when the model uncertainty is high. These predictions can then be deferred to a human expert for further evaluation. In many real-world scenarios, however, the distribution of test data is different from the training data. This results in more inaccurate predictions, necessitating increased human labeling, which is difficult and expensive in many scenarios. Active learning circumvents this difficulty by only querying the most informative examples and, in several cases, has been shown to lower the overall labeling effort. In this work, we bridge the gap between selective prediction and active learning, proposing a new learning paradigm called active selective prediction which learns to query more informative samples from the shifted target domain while increasing accuracy and coverage. For this new problem, we propose a simple but effective solution, ASPEST, that trains ensembles of model snapshots using self-training with their aggregated outputs as pseudo labels. Extensive experiments on several image, text and structured datasets with domain shifts demonstrate that active selective prediction can significantly outperform prior work on selective prediction and active learning (e.g. on the MNIST$\to$SVHN benchmark with the labeling budget of 100, ASPEST improves the AUC metric from 79.36% to 88.84%) and achieves more optimal utilization of humans in the loop.
One of the main motivations of studying continual learning is that the problem setting allows a model to accrue knowledge from past tasks to learn new tasks more efficiently. However, recent studies suggest that the key metric that continual learning algorithms optimize, reduction in catastrophic forgetting, does not correlate well with the forward transfer of knowledge. We believe that the conclusion previous works reached is due to the way they measure forward transfer. We argue that the measure of forward transfer to a task should not be affected by the restrictions placed on the continual learner in order to preserve knowledge of previous tasks. Instead, forward transfer should be measured by how easy it is to learn a new task given a set of representations produced by continual learning on previous tasks. Under this notion of forward transfer, we evaluate different continual learning algorithms on a variety of image classification benchmarks. Our results indicate that less forgetful representations lead to a better forward transfer suggesting a strong correlation between retaining past information and learning efficiency on new tasks. Further, we found less forgetful representations to be more diverse and discriminative compared to their forgetful counterparts.
* ICLR 2023 * Published as a conference paper at ICLR 2023
Pre-training representations (a.k.a. foundation models) has recently become a prevalent learning paradigm, where one first pre-trains a representation using large-scale unlabeled data, and then learns simple predictors on top of the representation using small labeled data from the downstream tasks. There are two key desiderata for the representation: label efficiency (the ability to learn an accurate classifier on top of the representation with a small amount of labeled data) and universality (usefulness across a wide range of downstream tasks). In this paper, we focus on one of the most popular instantiations of this paradigm: contrastive learning with linear probing, i.e., learning a linear predictor on the representation pre-trained by contrastive learning. We show that there exists a trade-off between the two desiderata so that one may not be able to achieve both simultaneously. Specifically, we provide analysis using a theoretical data model and show that, while more diverse pre-training data result in more diverse features for different tasks (improving universality), it puts less emphasis on task-specific features, giving rise to larger sample complexity for down-stream supervised tasks, and thus worse prediction performance. Guided by this analysis, we propose a contrastive regularization method to improve the trade-off. We validate our analysis and method empirically with systematic experiments using real-world datasets and foundation models.
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection plays a crucial role in ensuring the safe deployment of deep neural network (DNN) classifiers. While a myriad of methods have focused on improving the performance of OOD detectors, a critical gap remains in interpreting their decisions. We help bridge this gap by providing explanations for OOD detectors based on learned high-level concepts. We first propose two new metrics for assessing the effectiveness of a particular set of concepts for explaining OOD detectors: 1) detection completeness, which quantifies the sufficiency of concepts for explaining an OOD-detector's decisions, and 2) concept separability, which captures the distributional separation between in-distribution and OOD data in the concept space. Based on these metrics, we propose a framework for learning a set of concepts that satisfy the desired properties of detection completeness and concept separability and demonstrate the framework's effectiveness in providing concept-based explanations for diverse OOD techniques. We also show how to identify prominent concepts that contribute to the detection results via a modified Shapley value-based importance score.
Intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) systems based on deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely deployed in the real world. However, DNNs are found to be vulnerable to adversarial examples, which raises people's concerns about intelligent IoT systems' reliability and security. Testing and evaluating the robustness of IoT systems becomes necessary and essential. Recently various attacks and strategies have been proposed, but the efficiency problem remains unsolved properly. Existing methods are either computationally extensive or time-consuming, which is not applicable in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Attack-Inspired GAN (AI-GAN) to generate adversarial examples conditionally. Once trained, it can generate adversarial perturbations efficiently given input images and target classes. We apply AI-GAN on different datasets in white-box settings, black-box settings and targeted models protected by state-of-the-art defenses. Through extensive experiments, AI-GAN achieves high attack success rates, outperforming existing methods, and reduces generation time significantly. Moreover, for the first time, AI-GAN successfully scales to complex datasets e.g. CIFAR-100 and ImageNet, with about $90\%$ success rates among all classes.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2002.02196
There has been emerging interest in using transductive learning for adversarial robustness (Goldwasser et al., NeurIPS 2020; Wu et al., ICML 2020; Wang et al., ArXiv 2021). Compared to traditional defenses, these defense mechanisms "dynamically learn" the model based on test-time input; and theoretically, attacking these defenses reduces to solving a bilevel optimization problem, which poses difficulty in crafting adaptive attacks. In this paper, we examine these defense mechanisms from a principled threat analysis perspective. We formulate and analyze threat models for transductive-learning based defenses, and point out important subtleties. We propose the principle of attacking model space for solving bilevel attack objectives, and present Greedy Model Space Attack (GMSA), an attack framework that can serve as a new baseline for evaluating transductive-learning based defenses. Through systematic evaluation, we show that GMSA, even with weak instantiations, can break previous transductive-learning based defenses, which were resilient to previous attacks, such as AutoAttack (Croce and Hein, ICML 2020). On the positive side, we report a somewhat surprising empirical result of "transductive adversarial training": Adversarially retraining the model using fresh randomness at the test time gives a significant increase in robustness against attacks we consider.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2106.08387