In CMF surgery, the planning of bony movement to achieve a desired facial outcome is a challenging task. Current bone driven approaches focus on normalizing the bone with the expectation that the facial appearance will be corrected accordingly. However, due to the complex non-linear relationship between bony structure and facial soft-tissue, such bone-driven methods are insufficient to correct facial deformities. Despite efforts to simulate facial changes resulting from bony movement, surgical planning still relies on iterative revisions and educated guesses. To address these issues, we propose a soft-tissue driven framework that can automatically create and verify surgical plans. Our framework consists of a bony planner network that estimates the bony movements required to achieve the desired facial outcome and a facial simulator network that can simulate the possible facial changes resulting from the estimated bony movement plans. By combining these two models, we can verify and determine the final bony movement required for planning. The proposed framework was evaluated using a clinical dataset, and our experimental results demonstrate that the soft-tissue driven approach greatly improves the accuracy and efficacy of surgical planning when compared to the conventional bone-driven approach.
The information bottleneck (IB) method is a feasible defense solution against adversarial attacks in deep learning. However, this method suffers from the spurious correlation, which leads to the limitation of its further improvement of adversarial robustness. In this paper, we incorporate the causal inference into the IB framework to alleviate such a problem. Specifically, we divide the features obtained by the IB method into robust features (content information) and non-robust features (style information) via the instrumental variables to estimate the causal effects. With the utilization of such a framework, the influence of non-robust features could be mitigated to strengthen the adversarial robustness. We make an analysis of the effectiveness of our proposed method. The extensive experiments in MNIST, FashionMNIST, and CIFAR-10 show that our method exhibits the considerable robustness against multiple adversarial attacks. Our code would be released.
Simulating facial appearance change following bony movement is a critical step in orthognathic surgical planning for patients with jaw deformities. Conventional biomechanics-based methods such as the finite-element method (FEM) are labor intensive and computationally inefficient. Deep learning-based approaches can be promising alternatives due to their high computational efficiency and strong modeling capability. However, the existing deep learning-based method ignores the physical correspondence between facial soft tissue and bony segments and thus is significantly less accurate compared to FEM. In this work, we propose an Attentive Correspondence assisted Movement Transformation network (ACMT-Net) to estimate the facial appearance by transforming the bony movement to facial soft tissue through a point-to-point attentive correspondence matrix. Experimental results on patients with jaw deformity show that our proposed method can achieve comparable facial change prediction accuracy compared with the state-of-the-art FEM-based approach with significantly improved computational efficiency.
While image analysis of chest computed tomography (CT) for COVID-19 diagnosis has been intensively studied, little work has been performed for image-based patient outcome prediction. Management of high-risk patients with early intervention is a key to lower the fatality rate of COVID-19 pneumonia, as a majority of patients recover naturally. Therefore, an accurate prediction of disease progression with baseline imaging at the time of the initial presentation can help in patient management. In lieu of only size and volume information of pulmonary abnormalities and features through deep learning based image segmentation, here we combine radiomics of lung opacities and non-imaging features from demographic data, vital signs, and laboratory findings to predict need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses holistic information of a patient including both imaging and non-imaging data for outcome prediction. The proposed methods were thoroughly evaluated on datasets separately collected from three hospitals, one in the United States, one in Iran, and another in Italy, with a total 295 patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay positive COVID-19 pneumonia. Our experimental results demonstrate that adding non-imaging features can significantly improve the performance of prediction to achieve AUC up to 0.884 and sensitivity as high as 96.1%, which can be valuable to provide clinical decision support in managing COVID-19 patients. Our methods may also be applied to other lung diseases including but not limited to community acquired pneumonia.
This paper presents a unified training strategy that enables a novel multi-scale deep neural network to be trained on multiple partially labeled datasets for multi-organ segmentation. Multi-scale contextual information is effective for pixel-level label prediction, i.e. image segmentation. However, such important information is only partially exploited by the existing methods. In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for multi-scale feature abstraction, which integrates pyramid feature analysis into an image segmentation model. To bridge the semantic gap caused by directly merging features from different scales, an equal convolutional depth mechanism is proposed. In addition, we develop a deep supervision mechanism for refining outputs in different scales. To fully leverage the segmentation features from different scales, we design an adaptive weighting layer to fuse the outputs in an automatic fashion. All these features together integrate into a pyramid-input pyramid-output network for efficient feature extraction. Last but not least, to alleviate the hunger for fully annotated data in training deep segmentation models, a unified training strategy is proposed to train one segmentation model on multiple partially labeled datasets for multi-organ segmentation with a novel target adaptive loss. Our proposed method was evaluated on four publicly available datasets, including BTCV, LiTS, KiTS and Spleen, where very promising performance has been achieved. The source code of this work is publicly shared at https://github.com/DIAL-RPI/PIPO-FAN for others to easily reproduce the work and build their own models with the introduced mechanisms.
Automatic medical image segmentation, an essential component of medical image analysis, plays an importantrole in computer-aided diagnosis. For example, locating and segmenting the liver can be very helpful in livercancer diagnosis and treatment. The state-of-the-art models in medical image segmentation are variants ofthe encoder-decoder architecture such as fully convolutional network (FCN) and U-Net.1A major focus ofthe FCN based segmentation methods has been on network structure engineering by incorporating the latestCNN structures such as ResNet2and DenseNet.3In addition to exploring new network structures for efficientlyabstracting high level features, incorporating structures for multi-scale image feature extraction in FCN hashelped to improve performance in segmentation tasks. In this paper, we design a new multi-scale networkarchitecture, which takes multi-scale inputs with dedicated convolutional paths to efficiently combine featuresfrom different scales to better utilize the hierarchical information.
Labeling each instance in a large dataset is extremely labor- and time- consuming . One way to alleviate this problem is active learning, which aims to which discover the most valuable instances for labeling to construct a powerful classifier. Considering both informativeness and representativeness provides a promising way to design a practical active learning. However, most existing active learning methods select instances favoring either informativeness or representativeness. Meanwhile, many are designed based on the binary class, so that they may present suboptimal solutions on the datasets with multiple classes. In this paper, a hybrid informative and representative criterion based multi-class active learning approach is proposed. We combine the informative informativeness and representativeness into one formula, which can be solved under a unified framework. The informativeness is measured by the margin minimum while the representative information is measured by the maximum mean discrepancy. By minimizing the upper bound for the true risk, we generalize the empirical risk minimization principle to the active learning setting. Simultaneously, our proposed method makes full use of the label information, and the proposed active learning is designed based on multiple classes. So the proposed method is not suitable to the binary class but also the multiple classes. We conduct our experiments on twelve benchmark UCI data sets, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than some state-of-the-art methods.
Underwater machine vision has attracted significant attention, but its low quality has prevented it from a wide range of applications. Although many different algorithms have been developed to solve this problem, real-time adaptive methods are frequently deficient. In this paper, based on filtering and the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs), two approaches are proposed for the aforementioned issue, i.e., a filtering-based restoration scheme (FRS) and a GAN-based restoration scheme (GAN-RS). Distinct from previous methods, FRS restores underwater images in the Fourier domain, which is composed of a parameter search, filtering, and enhancement. Aiming to further improve the image quality, GAN-RS can adaptively restore underwater machine vision in real time without the need for pretreatment. In particular, information in the Lab color space and the dark channel is developed as loss functions, namely, underwater index loss and dark channel prior loss, respectively. More specifically, learning from the underwater index, the discriminator is equipped with a carefully crafted underwater branch to predict the underwater probability of an image. A multi-stage loss strategy is then developed to guarantee the effective training of GANs. Through extensive comparisons on the image quality and applications, the superiority of the proposed approaches is confirmed. Consequently, the GAN-RS is considerably faster and achieves a state-of-the-art performance in terms of the color correction, contrast stretch, dehazing, and feature restoration of various underwater scenes. The source code will be made available.