Entity abstract summarization aims to generate a coherent description of a given entity based on a set of relevant Internet documents. Pretrained language models (PLMs) have achieved significant success in this task, but they may suffer from hallucinations, i.e. generating non-factual information about the entity. To address this issue, we decompose the summary into two components: Facts that represent the factual information about the given entity, which PLMs are prone to fabricate; and Template that comprises generic content with designated slots for facts, which PLMs can generate competently. Based on the facts-template decomposition, we propose SlotSum, an explainable framework for entity abstract summarization. SlotSum first creates the template and then predicts the fact for each template slot based on the input documents. Benefiting from our facts-template decomposition, SlotSum can easily locate errors and further rectify hallucinated predictions with external knowledge. We construct a new dataset WikiFactSum to evaluate the performance of SlotSum. Experimental results demonstrate that SlotSum could generate summaries that are significantly more factual with credible external knowledge.
Hierarchical text classification (HTC) is a challenging subtask of multi-label classification due to its complex taxonomic structure. Nearly all recent HTC works focus on how the labels are structured but ignore the sub-structure of ground-truth labels according to each input text which contains fruitful label co-occurrence information. In this work, we introduce this local hierarchy with an adversarial framework. We propose a HiAdv framework that can fit in nearly all HTC models and optimize them with the local hierarchy as auxiliary information. We test on two typical HTC models and find that HiAdv is effective in all scenarios and is adept at dealing with complex taxonomic hierarchies. Further experiments demonstrate that the promotion of our framework indeed comes from the local hierarchy and the local hierarchy is beneficial for rare classes which have insufficient training data.
Supervised fine-tuning is the most common method to adapt large language models (LLMs) to downstream tasks, but full fine-tuning LLMs requires massive computational resources. Recently, parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) methods have been widely studied due to its cost-effectiveness. LoRA is one of the most widely used methods, which assumes that the optimization process is essentially low-dimensional. Although LoRA fine-tuning is effective, there is still a performance gap compared to full fine-tuning, since its weight update is limited to low-rank matrices. In order to break the low-rank bottleneck in LoRA Optimization, we propose PeriodicLoRA (PLoRA), which accumulates low-rank update matrices multiple times to achieve a higher update rank. PLoRA has multiple training stages. During each stage, we still update only the LoRA weights. However, at the end of each stage, we unload the LoRA weights into the backbone parameters and then reinitialize the LoRA states. Experimental results show that PLoRA has stronger learning ability, approximately 1.8 times that of LoRA's learning ability at most, but it does not increase memory usage. Further, we introduce a momentum-based unloading strategy for PLoRA to mitigate the training instability.
We present PCA-Bench, a multimodal decision-making benchmark for evaluating the integrated capabilities of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs). Departing from previous benchmarks focusing on simplistic tasks and individual model capability, PCA-Bench introduces three complex scenarios: autonomous driving, domestic robotics, and open-world games. Given task instructions and diverse contexts, the model is required to seamlessly integrate multiple capabilities of Perception, Cognition, and Action in a reasoning chain to make accurate decisions. Moreover, PCA-Bench features error localization capabilities, scrutinizing model inaccuracies in areas such as perception, knowledge, or reasoning. This enhances the reliability of deploying MLLMs. To balance accuracy and efficiency in evaluation, we propose PCA-Eval, an automatic evaluation protocol, and assess 10 prevalent MLLMs. The results reveal significant performance disparities between open-source models and powerful proprietary models like GPT-4 Vision. To address this, we introduce Embodied-Instruction-Evolution (EIE), an automatic framework for synthesizing instruction tuning examples in multimodal embodied environments. EIE generates 7,510 training examples in PCA-Bench and enhances the performance of open-source MLLMs, occasionally surpassing GPT-4 Vision (+3\% in decision accuracy), thereby validating the effectiveness of EIE. Our findings suggest that robust MLLMs like GPT4-Vision show promise for decision-making in embodied agents, opening new avenues for MLLM research.
Large Language Models (LLMs) rely on Human Preference Alignment (HPA) to ensure the generation of safe content. Due to the heavy cost associated with fine-tuning, fine-tuning-free methods have emerged, typically modifying LLM decoding with external auxiliary methods. However, these methods do not essentially enhance the LLM itself. In this paper, we rethink the derivation procedures of DPO, based on which we conversely build an instant scorer using the states of the LLM before and after In-context Learning (ICL). Accordingly, we propose a novel approach called In-Context Direct Preference Optimization (ICDPO). It enables LLMs to borrow the HPA capabilities from superior LLMs with ICL, generating well-aligned responses as estimated by the aforementioned instant scorer, thereby enhancing the final performance. ICDPO can be further enhanced with a two-stage retriever and an upgraded scorer, both offering benefits. Extensive experiments show its effectiveness, particularly in outperforming two fine-tuning-free baselines, and it exhibits competitiveness with SFT + LoRA. We also conduct detailed analyses to offer comprehensive insights into ICDPO.
Mathematical reasoning poses a significant challenge for language models due to its complex and structured nature. In this paper, we introduce DeepSeekMath 7B, which continues pre-training DeepSeek-Coder-Base-v1.5 7B with 120B math-related tokens sourced from Common Crawl, together with natural language and code data. DeepSeekMath 7B has achieved an impressive score of 51.7% on the competition-level MATH benchmark without relying on external toolkits and voting techniques, approaching the performance level of Gemini-Ultra and GPT-4. Self-consistency over 64 samples from DeepSeekMath 7B achieves 60.9% on MATH. The mathematical reasoning capability of DeepSeekMath is attributed to two key factors: First, we harness the significant potential of publicly available web data through a meticulously engineered data selection pipeline. Second, we introduce Group Relative Policy Optimization (GRPO), a variant of Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), that enhances mathematical reasoning abilities while concurrently optimizing the memory usage of PPO.
To mitigate the high inference latency stemming from autoregressive decoding in Large Language Models (LLMs), Speculative Decoding has emerged as a novel decoding paradigm for LLM inference. In each decoding step, this method first efficiently drafts several future tokens and then verifies them in parallel. Unlike autoregressive decoding, Speculative Decoding facilitates the simultaneous decoding of multiple tokens per step, thereby accelerating inference. This paper presents a comprehensive overview and analysis of this promising decoding paradigm. We begin by providing a formal definition and formulation of Speculative Decoding. Then, we organize in-depth discussions on its key facets, including current leading techniques, the challenges faced, and potential future directions in this field. We aim for this work to serve as a catalyst for further research on Speculative Decoding, ultimately contributing to more efficient LLM inference.
The rapid development of open-source large language models (LLMs) has been truly remarkable. However, the scaling law described in previous literature presents varying conclusions, which casts a dark cloud over scaling LLMs. We delve into the study of scaling laws and present our distinctive findings that facilitate scaling of large scale models in two commonly used open-source configurations, 7B and 67B. Guided by the scaling laws, we introduce DeepSeek LLM, a project dedicated to advancing open-source language models with a long-term perspective. To support the pre-training phase, we have developed a dataset that currently consists of 2 trillion tokens and is continuously expanding. We further conduct supervised fine-tuning (SFT) and Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) on DeepSeek LLM Base models, resulting in the creation of DeepSeek Chat models. Our evaluation results demonstrate that DeepSeek LLM 67B surpasses LLaMA-2 70B on various benchmarks, particularly in the domains of code, mathematics, and reasoning. Furthermore, open-ended evaluations reveal that DeepSeek LLM 67B Chat exhibits superior performance compared to GPT-3.5.
Graphical User Interface (GUI) automation holds significant promise for assisting users with complex tasks, thereby boosting human productivity. Existing works leveraging Large Language Model (LLM) or LLM-based AI agents have shown capabilities in automating tasks on Android and Web platforms. However, these tasks are primarily aimed at simple device usage and entertainment operations. This paper presents a novel benchmark, AssistGUI, to evaluate whether models are capable of manipulating the mouse and keyboard on the Windows platform in response to user-requested tasks. We carefully collected a set of 100 tasks from nine widely-used software applications, such as, After Effects and MS Word, each accompanied by the necessary project files for better evaluation. Moreover, we propose an advanced Actor-Critic Embodied Agent framework, which incorporates a sophisticated GUI parser driven by an LLM-agent and an enhanced reasoning mechanism adept at handling lengthy procedural tasks. Our experimental results reveal that our GUI Parser and Reasoning mechanism outshine existing methods in performance. Nevertheless, the potential remains substantial, with the best model attaining only a 46% success rate on our benchmark. We conclude with a thorough analysis of the current methods' limitations, setting the stage for future breakthroughs in this domain.