Deep neural networks (DNNs) are of critical use in different domains. To accelerate DNN computation, tensor compilers are proposed to generate efficient code on different domain-specific accelerators. Existing tensor compilers mainly focus on optimizing computation efficiency. However, memory access is becoming a key performance bottleneck because the computational performance of accelerators is increasing much faster than memory performance. The lack of direct description of memory access and data dependence in current tensor compilers' intermediate representation (IR) brings significant challenges to generate memory-efficient code. In this paper, we propose IntelliGen, a tensor compiler that can generate high-performance code for memory-intensive operators by considering both computation and data movement optimizations. IntelliGen represent a DNN program using GIR, which includes primitives indicating its computation, data movement, and parallel strategies. This information will be further composed as an instruction-level dataflow graph to perform holistic optimizations by searching different memory access patterns and computation operations, and generating memory-efficient code on different hardware. We evaluate IntelliGen on NVIDIA GPU, AMD GPU, and Cambricon MLU, showing speedup up to 1.97x, 2.93x, and 16.91x(1.28x, 1.23x, and 2.31x on average), respectively, compared to current most performant frameworks.
A key performance bottleneck when training graph neural network (GNN) models on large, real-world graphs is loading node features onto a GPU. Due to limited GPU memory, expensive data movement is necessary to facilitate the storage of these features on alternative devices with slower access (e.g. CPU memory). Moreover, the irregularity of graph structures contributes to poor data locality which further exacerbates the problem. Consequently, existing frameworks capable of efficiently training large GNN models usually incur a significant accuracy degradation because of the inevitable shortcuts involved. To address these limitations, we instead propose ReFresh, a general-purpose GNN mini-batch training framework that leverages a historical cache for storing and reusing GNN node embeddings instead of re-computing them through fetching raw features at every iteration. Critical to its success, the corresponding cache policy is designed, using a combination of gradient-based and staleness criteria, to selectively screen those embeddings which are relatively stable and can be cached, from those that need to be re-computed to reduce estimation errors and subsequent downstream accuracy loss. When paired with complementary system enhancements to support this selective historical cache, ReFresh is able to accelerate the training speed on large graph datasets such as ogbn-papers100M and MAG240M by 4.6x up to 23.6x and reduce the memory access by 64.5% (85.7% higher than a raw feature cache), with less than 1% influence on test accuracy.
We introduce GLM-130B, a bilingual (English and Chinese) pre-trained language model with 130 billion parameters. It is an attempt to open-source a 100B-scale model at least as good as GPT-3 and unveil how models of such a scale can be successfully pre-trained. Over the course of this effort, we face numerous unexpected technical and engineering challenges, particularly on loss spikes and disconvergence. In this paper, we introduce the training process of GLM-130B including its design choices, training strategies for both efficiency and stability, and engineering efforts. The resultant GLM-130B model offers significant outperformance over GPT-3 175B on a wide range of popular English benchmarks while the performance advantage is not observed in OPT-175B and BLOOM-176B. It also consistently and significantly outperforms ERNIE TITAN 3.0 260B -- the largest Chinese language model -- across related benchmarks. Finally, we leverage a unique scaling property of GLM-130B to reach INT4 quantization, without quantization aware training and with almost no performance loss, making it the first among 100B-scale models. More importantly, the property allows its effective inference on 4$\times$RTX 3090 (24G) or 8$\times$RTX 2080 Ti (11G) GPUs, the most ever affordable GPUs required for using 100B-scale models. The GLM-130B model weights are publicly accessible and its code, training logs, related toolkit, and lessons learned are open-sourced at https://github.com/THUDM/GLM-130B .
The recent prevalence of pretrained language models (PLMs) has dramatically shifted the paradigm of semantic parsing, where the mapping from natural language utterances to structured logical forms is now formulated as a Seq2Seq task. Despite the promising performance, previous PLM-based approaches often suffer from hallucination problems due to their negligence of the structural information contained in the sentence, which essentially constitutes the key semantics of the logical forms. Furthermore, most works treat PLM as a black box in which the generation process of the target logical form is hidden beneath the decoder modules, which greatly hinders the model's intrinsic interpretability. To address these two issues, we propose to incorporate the current PLMs with a hierarchical decoder network. By taking the first-principle structures as the semantic anchors, we propose two novel intermediate supervision tasks, namely Semantic Anchor Extraction and Semantic Anchor Alignment, for training the hierarchical decoders and probing the model intermediate representations in a self-adaptive manner alongside the fine-tuning process. We conduct intensive experiments on several semantic parsing benchmarks and demonstrate that our approach can consistently outperform the baselines. More importantly, by analyzing the intermediate representations of the hierarchical decoders, our approach also makes a huge step toward the intrinsic interpretability of PLMs in the domain of semantic parsing.
Boosting the runtime performance of deep neural networks (DNNs) is critical due to their wide adoption in real-world tasks. Existing approaches to optimizing the tensor algebra expression of a DNN only consider expressions representable by a fixed set of predefined operators, missing possible optimization opportunities between general expressions. We propose OLLIE, the first derivation-based tensor program optimizer. OLLIE optimizes tensor programs by leveraging transformations between general tensor algebra expressions, enabling a significantly larger expression search space that includes those supported by prior work as special cases. OLLIE uses a hybrid derivation-based optimizer that effectively combines explorative and guided derivations to quickly discover highly optimized expressions. Evaluation on seven DNNs shows that OLLIE can outperform existing optimizers by up to 2.73$\times$ (1.46$\times$ on average) on an A100 GPU and up to 2.68$\times$ (1.51$\times$) on a V100 GPU, respectively.
Subject to the semantic gap lying between natural and formal language, neural semantic parsing is typically bottlenecked by the paucity and imbalance of data. In this paper, we propose a unified intermediate representation (IR) for graph query languages, namely GraphQ IR. With the IR's natural-language-like representation that bridges the semantic gap and its formally defined syntax that maintains the graph structure, neural semantic parser can more effectively convert user queries into our GraphQ IR, which can be later automatically compiled into different downstream graph query languages. Extensive experiments show that our approach can consistently achieve state-of-the-art performance on benchmarks KQA Pro, Overnight and MetaQA. Evaluations under compositional generalization and few-shot learning settings also validate the promising generalization ability of GraphQ IR with at most 11% accuracy improvement.
With the rapid development of deep learning, training Big Models (BMs) for multiple downstream tasks becomes a popular paradigm. Researchers have achieved various outcomes in the construction of BMs and the BM application in many fields. At present, there is a lack of research work that sorts out the overall progress of BMs and guides the follow-up research. In this paper, we cover not only the BM technologies themselves but also the prerequisites for BM training and applications with BMs, dividing the BM review into four parts: Resource, Models, Key Technologies and Application. We introduce 16 specific BM-related topics in those four parts, they are Data, Knowledge, Computing System, Parallel Training System, Language Model, Vision Model, Multi-modal Model, Theory&Interpretability, Commonsense Reasoning, Reliability&Security, Governance, Evaluation, Machine Translation, Text Generation, Dialogue and Protein Research. In each topic, we summarize clearly the current studies and propose some future research directions. At the end of this paper, we conclude the further development of BMs in a more general view.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2107.06499 by other authors
Mixture-of-Expert (MoE) presents a strong potential in enlarging the size of language model to trillions of parameters. However, training trillion-scale MoE requires algorithm and system co-design for a well-tuned high performance distributed training system. Unfortunately, the only existing platform that meets the requirements strongly depends on Google's hardware (TPU) and software (Mesh Tensorflow) stack, and is not open and available to the public, especially GPU and PyTorch communities. In this paper, we present FastMoE, a distributed MoE training system based on PyTorch with common accelerators. The system provides a hierarchical interface for both flexible model design and easy adaption to different applications, such as Transformer-XL and Megatron-LM. Different from direct implementation of MoE models using PyTorch, the training speed is highly optimized in FastMoE by sophisticated high-performance acceleration skills. The system supports placing different experts on multiple GPUs across multiple nodes, enabling enlarging the number of experts linearly against the number of GPUs. The source of FastMoE is available at https://github.com/laekov/fastmoe under Apache-2 license.
The plethora of complex artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms and available high performance computing (HPC) power stimulates the convergence of AI and HPC. The expeditious development of AI components, in both hardware and software domain, increases the system heterogeneity, which prompts the challenge on fair and comprehensive benchmarking. Existing HPC and AI benchmarks fail to cover the variety of heterogeneous systems while providing a simple quantitative measurement to reflect the overall performance of large clusters for AI tasks. To address the challenges, we specify the requirements of an AI-HPC considering the future scenarios and propose an end-to-end benchmark suite utilizing automated machine learning (AutoML) as a representative AI application. The extremely high computational cost and high scalability make AutoML a desired workload candidate for AI-HPC benchmark. We implement the algorithms in a highly efficient and parallel way to ensure automatic adaption on various systems regarding AI accelerator's memory and quantity. The benchmark is particularly customizable on back-end training framework and hyperparameters so as to achieve optimal performance on diverse systems. The major metric to quantify the machine performance is floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), which is measured in a systematic and analytical approach. We also provide a regulated score as a complementary result to reflect hardware and software co-performance. We verify the benchmark's linear scalability on different scales of nodes up to 16 equipped with 128 GPUs and evaluate the stability as well as reproducibility at discrete timestamps. The source code, specifications, and detailed procedures are publicly accessible on GitHub: https://github.com/AI-HPC-Research-Team/AIPerf.