Meta learning have achieved promising performance in low-resource text classification which aims to identify target classes with knowledge transferred from source classes with sets of small tasks named episodes. However, due to the limited training data in the meta-learning scenario and the inherent properties of parameterized neural networks, poor generalization performance has become a pressing problem that needs to be addressed. To deal with this issue, we propose a meta-learning based method called Retrieval-Augmented Meta Learning(RAML). It not only uses parameterization for inference but also retrieves non-parametric knowledge from an external corpus to make inferences, which greatly alleviates the problem of poor generalization performance caused by the lack of diverse training data in meta-learning. This method differs from previous models that solely rely on parameters, as it explicitly emphasizes the importance of non-parametric knowledge, aiming to strike a balance between parameterized neural networks and non-parametric knowledge. The model is required to determine which knowledge to access and utilize during inference. Additionally, our multi-view passages fusion network module can effectively and efficiently integrate the retrieved information into low-resource classification task. The extensive experiments demonstrate that RAML significantly outperforms current SOTA low-resource text classification models.
Generalized Few-Shot Intent Detection (GFSID) is challenging and realistic because it needs to categorize both seen and novel intents simultaneously. Previous GFSID methods rely on the episodic learning paradigm, which makes it hard to extend to a generalized setup as they do not explicitly learn the classification of seen categories and the knowledge of seen intents. To address the dilemma, we propose to convert the GFSID task into the class incremental learning paradigm. Specifically, we propose a two-stage learning framework, which sequentially learns the knowledge of different intents in various periods via prompt learning. And then we exploit prototypes for categorizing both seen and novel intents. Furthermore, to achieve the transfer knowledge of intents in different stages, for different scenarios we design two knowledge preservation methods which close to realistic applications. Extensive experiments and detailed analyses on two widely used datasets show that our framework based on the class incremental learning paradigm achieves promising performance.
Citation field learning is to segment a citation string into fields of interest such as author, title, and venue. Extracting such fields from citations is crucial for citation indexing, researcher profile analysis, etc. User-generated resources like academic homepages and Curriculum Vitae, provide rich citation field information. However, extracting fields from these resources is challenging due to inconsistent citation styles, incomplete sentence syntax, and insufficient training data. To address these challenges, we propose a novel algorithm, CIFAL (citation field learning by anchor learning), to boost the citation field learning performance. CIFAL leverages the anchor learning, which is model-agnostic for any Pre-trained Language Model, to help capture citation patterns from the data of different citation styles. The experiments demonstrate that CIFAL outperforms state-of-the-art methods in citation field learning, achieving a 2.83% improvement in field-level F1-scores. Extensive analysis of the results further confirms the effectiveness of CIFAL quantitatively and qualitatively.
The heavy-load legged robot has strong load carrying capacity and can adapt to various unstructured terrains. But the large weight results in higher requirements for motion stability and environmental perception ability. In order to utilize force sensing information to improve its motion performance, in this paper, we propose a finite state machine model for the swing leg in the static gait by imitating the movement of the elephant. Based on the presence or absence of additional terrain information, different trajectory planning strategies are provided for the swing leg to enhance the success rate of stepping and save energy. The experimental results on a novel quadruped robot show that our method has strong robustness and can enable heavy-load legged robots to pass through various complex terrains autonomously and smoothly.
With the continuous evolution and refinement of LLMs, they are endowed with impressive logical reasoning or vertical thinking capabilities. But can they think out of the box? Do they possess proficient lateral thinking abilities? Following the setup of Lateral Thinking Puzzles, we propose a novel evaluation benchmark, LatEval, which assesses the model's lateral thinking within an interactive framework. In our benchmark, we challenge LLMs with 2 aspects: the quality of questions posed by the model and the model's capability to integrate information for problem-solving. We find that nearly all LLMs struggle with employing lateral thinking during interactions. For example, even the most advanced model, GPT-4, exhibits the advantage to some extent, yet still maintain a noticeable gap when compared to human. This evaluation benchmark provides LLMs with a highly challenging and distinctive task that is crucial to an effective AI assistant.
Large language models (LLMs) have shown impressive ability for open-domain NLP tasks. However, LLMs are sometimes too footloose for natural language understanding (NLU) tasks which always have restricted output and input format. Their performances on NLU tasks are highly related to prompts or demonstrations and are shown to be poor at performing several representative NLU tasks, such as event extraction and entity typing. To this end, we present SeqGPT, a bilingual (i.e., English and Chinese) open-source autoregressive model specially enhanced for open-domain natural language understanding. We express all NLU tasks with two atomic tasks, which define fixed instructions to restrict the input and output format but still ``open'' for arbitrarily varied label sets. The model is first instruction-tuned with extremely fine-grained labeled data synthesized by ChatGPT and then further fine-tuned by 233 different atomic tasks from 152 datasets across various domains. The experimental results show that SeqGPT has decent classification and extraction ability, and is capable of performing language understanding tasks on unseen domains. We also conduct empirical studies on the scaling of data and model size as well as on the transfer across tasks. Our model is accessible at https://github.com/Alibaba-NLP/SeqGPT.
The Entity Set Expansion (ESE) task aims to expand a handful of seed entities with new entities belonging to the same semantic class. Conventional ESE methods are based on mono-modality (i.e., literal modality), which struggle to deal with complex entities in the real world such as: (1) Negative entities with fine-grained semantic differences. (2) Synonymous entities. (3) Polysemous entities. (4) Long-tailed entities. These challenges prompt us to propose Multi-modal Entity Set Expansion (MESE), where models integrate information from multiple modalities to represent entities. Intuitively, the benefits of multi-modal information for ESE are threefold: (1) Different modalities can provide complementary information. (2) Multi-modal information provides a unified signal via common visual properties for the same semantic class or entity. (3) Multi-modal information offers robust alignment signal for synonymous entities. To assess the performance of model in MESE and facilitate further research, we constructed the MESED dataset which is the first multi-modal dataset for ESE with large-scale and elaborate manual calibration. A powerful multi-modal model MultiExpan is proposed which is pre-trained on four multimodal pre-training tasks. The extensive experiments and analyses on MESED demonstrate the high quality of the dataset and the effectiveness of our MultiExpan, as well as pointing the direction for future research.
Recently, the development and progress of Large Language Models (LLMs) have amazed the entire Artificial Intelligence community. As an outstanding representative of LLMs and the foundation model that set off this wave of research on LLMs, ChatGPT has attracted more and more researchers to study its capabilities and performance on various downstream Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. While marveling at ChatGPT's incredible performance on kinds of tasks, we notice that ChatGPT also has excellent multilingual processing capabilities, such as Chinese. To explore the Chinese processing ability of ChatGPT, we focus on Chinese Text Correction, a fundamental and challenging Chinese NLP task. Specifically, we evaluate ChatGPT on the Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC) and Chinese Spelling Check (CSC) tasks, which are two main Chinese Text Correction scenarios. From extensive analyses and comparisons with previous state-of-the-art fine-tuned models, we empirically find that the ChatGPT currently has both amazing performance and unsatisfactory behavior for Chinese Text Correction. We believe our findings will promote the landing and application of LLMs in the Chinese NLP community.
Entity Linking (EL) is a fundamental task for Information Extraction and Knowledge Graphs. The general form of EL (i.e., end-to-end EL) aims to first find mentions in the given input document and then link the mentions to corresponding entities in a specific knowledge base. Recently, the paradigm of retriever-reader promotes the progress of end-to-end EL, benefiting from the advantages of dense entity retrieval and machine reading comprehension. However, the existing study only trains the retriever and the reader separately in a pipeline manner, which ignores the benefit that the interaction between the retriever and the reader can bring to the task. To advance the retriever-reader paradigm to perform more perfectly on end-to-end EL, we propose BEER$^2$, a Bidirectional End-to-End training framework for Retriever and Reader. Through our designed bidirectional end-to-end training, BEER$^2$ guides the retriever and the reader to learn from each other, make progress together, and ultimately improve EL performance. Extensive experiments on benchmarks of multiple domains demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed BEER$^2$.
Chinese Text Error Correction (CTEC) aims to detect and correct errors in the input text, which benefits human's daily life and various downstream tasks. Recent approaches mainly employ Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) to resolve CTEC task and achieve tremendous success. However, previous approaches suffer from issues of over-correction and under-correction, and the former is especially conspicuous in the precision-critical CTEC task. To mitigate the issue of overcorrection, we propose a novel model-agnostic progressive multitask learning framework for CTEC, named ProTEC, which guides a CTEC model to learn the task from easy to difficult. We divide CTEC task into three sub-tasks from easy to difficult: Error Detection, Error Type Identification, and Correction Result Generation. During the training process, ProTEC guides the model to learn text error correction progressively by incorporating these sub-tasks into a multi-task training objective. During the inference process, the model completes these sub-tasks in turn to generate the correction results. Extensive experiments and detailed analyses fully demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework.