Text-guided diffusion models have revolutionized image and video generation and have also been successfully used for optimization-based 3D object synthesis. Here, we instead focus on the underexplored text-to-4D setting and synthesize dynamic, animated 3D objects using score distillation methods with an additional temporal dimension. Compared to previous work, we pursue a novel compositional generation-based approach, and combine text-to-image, text-to-video, and 3D-aware multiview diffusion models to provide feedback during 4D object optimization, thereby simultaneously enforcing temporal consistency, high-quality visual appearance and realistic geometry. Our method, called Align Your Gaussians (AYG), leverages dynamic 3D Gaussian Splatting with deformation fields as 4D representation. Crucial to AYG is a novel method to regularize the distribution of the moving 3D Gaussians and thereby stabilize the optimization and induce motion. We also propose a motion amplification mechanism as well as a new autoregressive synthesis scheme to generate and combine multiple 4D sequences for longer generation. These techniques allow us to synthesize vivid dynamic scenes, outperform previous work qualitatively and quantitatively and achieve state-of-the-art text-to-4D performance. Due to the Gaussian 4D representation, different 4D animations can be seamlessly combined, as we demonstrate. AYG opens up promising avenues for animation, simulation and digital content creation as well as synthetic data generation.
We present 3DiffTection, a state-of-the-art method for 3D object detection from single images, leveraging features from a 3D-aware diffusion model. Annotating large-scale image data for 3D detection is resource-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, pretrained large image diffusion models have become prominent as effective feature extractors for 2D perception tasks. However, these features are initially trained on paired text and image data, which are not optimized for 3D tasks, and often exhibit a domain gap when applied to the target data. Our approach bridges these gaps through two specialized tuning strategies: geometric and semantic. For geometric tuning, we fine-tune a diffusion model to perform novel view synthesis conditioned on a single image, by introducing a novel epipolar warp operator. This task meets two essential criteria: the necessity for 3D awareness and reliance solely on posed image data, which are readily available (e.g., from videos) and does not require manual annotation. For semantic refinement, we further train the model on target data with detection supervision. Both tuning phases employ ControlNet to preserve the integrity of the original feature capabilities. In the final step, we harness these enhanced capabilities to conduct a test-time prediction ensemble across multiple virtual viewpoints. Through our methodology, we obtain 3D-aware features that are tailored for 3D detection and excel in identifying cross-view point correspondences. Consequently, our model emerges as a powerful 3D detector, substantially surpassing previous benchmarks, e.g., Cube-RCNN, a precedent in single-view 3D detection by 9.43\% in AP3D on the Omni3D-ARkitscene dataset. Furthermore, 3DiffTection showcases robust data efficiency and generalization to cross-domain data.
In this work, we introduce a self-supervised feature representation learning framework DreamTeacher that utilizes generative networks for pre-training downstream image backbones. We propose to distill knowledge from a trained generative model into standard image backbones that have been well engineered for specific perception tasks. We investigate two types of knowledge distillation: 1) distilling learned generative features onto target image backbones as an alternative to pretraining these backbones on large labeled datasets such as ImageNet, and 2) distilling labels obtained from generative networks with task heads onto logits of target backbones. We perform extensive analyses on multiple generative models, dense prediction benchmarks, and several pre-training regimes. We empirically find that our DreamTeacher significantly outperforms existing self-supervised representation learning approaches across the board. Unsupervised ImageNet pre-training with DreamTeacher leads to significant improvements over ImageNet classification pre-training on downstream datasets, showcasing generative models, and diffusion generative models specifically, as a promising approach to representation learning on large, diverse datasets without requiring manual annotation.
Latent Diffusion Models (LDMs) enable high-quality image synthesis while avoiding excessive compute demands by training a diffusion model in a compressed lower-dimensional latent space. Here, we apply the LDM paradigm to high-resolution video generation, a particularly resource-intensive task. We first pre-train an LDM on images only; then, we turn the image generator into a video generator by introducing a temporal dimension to the latent space diffusion model and fine-tuning on encoded image sequences, i.e., videos. Similarly, we temporally align diffusion model upsamplers, turning them into temporally consistent video super resolution models. We focus on two relevant real-world applications: Simulation of in-the-wild driving data and creative content creation with text-to-video modeling. In particular, we validate our Video LDM on real driving videos of resolution 512 x 1024, achieving state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, our approach can easily leverage off-the-shelf pre-trained image LDMs, as we only need to train a temporal alignment model in that case. Doing so, we turn the publicly available, state-of-the-art text-to-image LDM Stable Diffusion into an efficient and expressive text-to-video model with resolution up to 1280 x 2048. We show that the temporal layers trained in this way generalize to different fine-tuned text-to-image LDMs. Utilizing this property, we show the first results for personalized text-to-video generation, opening exciting directions for future content creation. Project page: https://research.nvidia.com/labs/toronto-ai/VideoLDM/
Annotating images with pixel-wise labels is a time-consuming and costly process. Recently, DatasetGAN showcased a promising alternative - to synthesize a large labeled dataset via a generative adversarial network (GAN) by exploiting a small set of manually labeled, GAN-generated images. Here, we scale DatasetGAN to ImageNet scale of class diversity. We take image samples from the class-conditional generative model BigGAN trained on ImageNet, and manually annotate 5 images per class, for all 1k classes. By training an effective feature segmentation architecture on top of BigGAN, we turn BigGAN into a labeled dataset generator. We further show that VQGAN can similarly serve as a dataset generator, leveraging the already annotated data. We create a new ImageNet benchmark by labeling an additional set of 8k real images and evaluate segmentation performance in a variety of settings. Through an extensive ablation study we show big gains in leveraging a large generated dataset to train different supervised and self-supervised backbone models on pixel-wise tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that using our synthesized datasets for pre-training leads to improvements over standard ImageNet pre-training on several downstream datasets, such as PASCAL-VOC, MS-COCO, Cityscapes and chest X-ray, as well as tasks (detection, segmentation). Our benchmark will be made public and maintain a leaderboard for this challenging task. Project Page: https://nv-tlabs.github.io/big-datasetgan/
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have recently found applications in image editing. However, most GAN based image editing methods often require large scale datasets with semantic segmentation annotations for training, only provide high level control, or merely interpolate between different images. Here, we propose EditGAN, a novel method for high quality, high precision semantic image editing, allowing users to edit images by modifying their highly detailed part segmentation masks, e.g., drawing a new mask for the headlight of a car. EditGAN builds on a GAN framework that jointly models images and their semantic segmentations, requiring only a handful of labeled examples, making it a scalable tool for editing. Specifically, we embed an image into the GAN latent space and perform conditional latent code optimization according to the segmentation edit, which effectively also modifies the image. To amortize optimization, we find editing vectors in latent space that realize the edits. The framework allows us to learn an arbitrary number of editing vectors, which can then be directly applied on other images at interactive rates. We experimentally show that EditGAN can manipulate images with an unprecedented level of detail and freedom, while preserving full image quality.We can also easily combine multiple edits and perform plausible edits beyond EditGAN training data. We demonstrate EditGAN on a wide variety of image types and quantitatively outperform several previous editing methods on standard editing benchmark tasks.
We introduce DatasetGAN: an automatic procedure to generate massive datasets of high-quality semantically segmented images requiring minimal human effort. Current deep networks are extremely data-hungry, benefiting from training on large-scale datasets, which are time consuming to annotate. Our method relies on the power of recent GANs to generate realistic images. We show how the GAN latent code can be decoded to produce a semantic segmentation of the image. Training the decoder only needs a few labeled examples to generalize to the rest of the latent space, resulting in an infinite annotated dataset generator! These generated datasets can then be used for training any computer vision architecture just as real datasets are. As only a few images need to be manually segmented, it becomes possible to annotate images in extreme detail and generate datasets with rich object and part segmentations. To showcase the power of our approach, we generated datasets for 7 image segmentation tasks which include pixel-level labels for 34 human face parts, and 32 car parts. Our approach outperforms all semi-supervised baselines significantly and is on par with fully supervised methods, which in some cases require as much as 100x more annotated data as our method.
Differentiable rendering has paved the way to training neural networks to perform "inverse graphics" tasks such as predicting 3D geometry from monocular photographs. To train high performing models, most of the current approaches rely on multi-view imagery which are not readily available in practice. Recent Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) that synthesize images, in contrast, seem to acquire 3D knowledge implicitly during training: object viewpoints can be manipulated by simply manipulating the latent codes. However, these latent codes often lack further physical interpretation and thus GANs cannot easily be inverted to perform explicit 3D reasoning. In this paper, we aim to extract and disentangle 3D knowledge learned by generative models by utilizing differentiable renderers. Key to our approach is to exploit GANs as a multi-view data generator to train an inverse graphics network using an off-the-shelf differentiable renderer, and the trained inverse graphics network as a teacher to disentangle the GAN's latent code into interpretable 3D properties. The entire architecture is trained iteratively using cycle consistency losses. We show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art inverse graphics networks trained on existing datasets, both quantitatively and via user studies. We further showcase the disentangled GAN as a controllable 3D "neural renderer", complementing traditional graphics renderers.