Large language models (LLMs) have pushed the limits of natural language understanding and exhibited excellent problem-solving ability. Despite the great success, most existing open-source LLMs (e.g., LLaMA-2) are still far away from satisfactory for solving mathematical problem due to the complex reasoning procedures. To bridge this gap, we propose MetaMath, a fine-tuned language model that specializes in mathematical reasoning. Specifically, we start by bootstrapping mathematical questions by rewriting the question from multiple perspectives without extra knowledge, which results in a new dataset called MetaMathQA. Then we fine-tune the LLaMA-2 models on MetaMathQA. Experimental results on two popular benchmarks (i.e., GSM8K and MATH) for mathematical reasoning demonstrate that MetaMath outperforms a suite of open-source LLMs by a significant margin. Our MetaMath-7B model achieves 66.4% on GSM8K and 19.4% on MATH, exceeding the state-of-the-art models of the same size by 11.5% and 8.7%. Particularly, MetaMath-70B achieves an accuracy of 82.3% on GSM8K, slightly better than GPT-3.5-Turbo. We release the MetaMathQA dataset, the MetaMath models with different model sizes and the training code for public use.
Generative models can be categorized into two types: explicit generative models that define explicit density forms and allow exact likelihood inference, such as score-based diffusion models (SDMs) and normalizing flows; implicit generative models that directly learn a transformation from the prior to the data distribution, such as generative adversarial nets (GANs). While these two types of models have shown great success, they suffer from respective limitations that hinder them from achieving fast sampling and high sample quality simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a unified theoretic framework for SDMs and GANs. We shown that: i) the learning dynamics of both SDMs and GANs can be described as a novel SDE named Discriminator Denoising Diffusion Flow (DiffFlow) where the drift can be determined by some weighted combinations of scores of the real data and the generated data; ii) By adjusting the relative weights between different score terms, we can obtain a smooth transition between SDMs and GANs while the marginal distribution of the SDE remains invariant to the change of the weights; iii) we prove the asymptotic optimality and maximal likelihood training scheme of the DiffFlow dynamics; iv) under our unified theoretic framework, we introduce several instantiations of the DiffFLow that provide new algorithms beyond GANs and SDMs with exact likelihood inference and have potential to achieve flexible trade-off between high sample quality and fast sampling speed.
Localization and navigation are basic robotic tasks requiring an accurate and up-to-date map to finish these tasks, with crowdsourced data to detect map changes posing an appealing solution. Collecting and processing crowdsourced data requires low-cost sensors and algorithms, but existing methods rely on expensive sensors or computationally expensive algorithms. Additionally, there is no existing dataset to evaluate point cloud change detection. Thus, this paper proposes a novel framework using low-cost sensors like stereo cameras and IMU to detect changes in a point cloud map. Moreover, we create a dataset and the corresponding metrics to evaluate point cloud change detection with the help of the high-fidelity simulator Unreal Engine 4. Experiments show that our visualbased framework can effectively detect the changes in our dataset.
Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown terrains employing single or multiple robots is an essential task in mobile robotics and has therefore been widely investigated. Nevertheless, given the lack of unified data sets, metrics, and platforms to evaluate the exploration approaches, we develop an autonomous robot exploration benchmark entitled Explore-Bench. The benchmark involves various exploration scenarios and presents two types of quantitative metrics to evaluate exploration efficiency and multi-robot cooperation. Explore-Bench is extremely useful as, recently, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been widely used for robot exploration tasks and achieved promising results. However, training DRL-based approaches requires large data sets, and additionally, current benchmarks rely on realistic simulators with a slow simulation speed, which is not appropriate for training exploration strategies. Hence, to support efficient DRL training and comprehensive evaluation, the suggested Explore-Bench designs a 3-level platform with a unified data flow and $12 \times$ speed-up that includes a grid-based simulator for fast evaluation and efficient training, a realistic Gazebo simulator, and a remotely accessible robot testbed for high-accuracy tests in physical environments. The practicality of the proposed benchmark is highlighted with the application of one DRL-based and three frontier-based exploration approaches. Furthermore, we analyze the performance differences and provide some insights about the selection and design of exploration methods. Our benchmark is available at https://github.com/efc-robot/Explore-Bench.
For scenes such as floods and earthquakes, the disaster area is large, and rescue time is tight. Multi-UAV exploration is more efficient than a single UAV. Existing UAV exploration work is modeled as a Coverage Path Planning (CPP) task to achieve full coverage of the area in the presence of obstacles. However, the endurance capability of UAV is limited, and the rescue time is urgent. Thus, even using multiple UAVs cannot achieve complete disaster area coverage in time. Therefore, in this paper we propose a multi-Agent Endurance-limited CPP (MAEl-CPP) problem based on a priori heatmap of the disaster area, which requires the exploration of more valuable areas under limited energy. Furthermore, we propose a path planning algorithm for the MAEl-CPP problem, by ranking the possible disaster areas according to their importance through satellite or remote aerial images and completing path planning according to the importance level. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is at least twice as effective as the existing method in terms of search efficiency.
Learning depth and ego-motion from unlabeled videos via self-supervision from epipolar projection can improve the robustness and accuracy of the 3D perception and localization of vision-based robots. However, the rigid projection computed by ego-motion cannot represent all scene points, such as points on moving objects, leading to false guidance in these regions. To address this problem, we propose an Attentional Separation-and-Aggregation Network (ASANet), which can learn to distinguish and extract the scene's static and dynamic characteristics via the attention mechanism. We further propose a novel MotionNet with an ASANet as the encoder, followed by two separate decoders, to estimate the camera's ego-motion and the scene's dynamic motion field. Then, we introduce an auto-selecting approach to detect the moving objects for dynamic-aware learning automatically. Empirical experiments demonstrate that our method can achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the KITTI benchmark.
Recently, Deep Learning (DL), especially Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), develops rapidly and is applied to many tasks, such as image classification, face recognition, image segmentation, and human detection. Due to its superior performance, DL-based models have a wide range of application in many areas, some of which are extremely safety-critical, e.g. intelligent surveillance and autonomous driving. Due to the latency and privacy problem of cloud computing, embedded accelerators are popular in these safety-critical areas. However, the robustness of the embedded DL system might be harmed by inserting hardware/software Trojans into the accelerator and the neural network model, since the accelerator and deploy tool (or neural network model) are usually provided by third-party companies. Fortunately, inserting hardware Trojans can only achieve inflexible attack, which means that hardware Trojans can easily break down the whole system or exchange two outputs, but can't make CNN recognize unknown pictures as targets. Though inserting software Trojans has more freedom of attack, it often requires tampering input images, which is not easy for attackers. So, in this paper, we propose a hardware-software collaborative attack framework to inject hidden neural network Trojans, which works as a back-door without requiring manipulating input images and is flexible for different scenarios. We test our attack framework for image classification and face recognition tasks, and get attack success rate of 92.6% and 100% on CIFAR10 and YouTube Faces, respectively, while keeping almost the same accuracy as the unattacked model in the normal mode. In addition, we show a specific attack scenario in which a face recognition system is attacked and gives a specific wrong answer.