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Kai He

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A Survey on Semantic Processing Techniques

Oct 22, 2023
Rui Mao, Kai He, Xulang Zhang, Guanyi Chen, Jinjie Ni, Zonglin Yang, Erik Cambria

Semantic processing is a fundamental research domain in computational linguistics. In the era of powerful pre-trained language models and large language models, the advancement of research in this domain appears to be decelerating. However, the study of semantics is multi-dimensional in linguistics. The research depth and breadth of computational semantic processing can be largely improved with new technologies. In this survey, we analyzed five semantic processing tasks, e.g., word sense disambiguation, anaphora resolution, named entity recognition, concept extraction, and subjectivity detection. We study relevant theoretical research in these fields, advanced methods, and downstream applications. We connect the surveyed tasks with downstream applications because this may inspire future scholars to fuse these low-level semantic processing tasks with high-level natural language processing tasks. The review of theoretical research may also inspire new tasks and technologies in the semantic processing domain. Finally, we compare the different semantic processing techniques and summarize their technical trends, application trends, and future directions.

* Published at Information Fusion, Volume 101, 2024, 101988, ISSN 1566-2535. The equal contribution mark is missed in the published version due to the publication policies. Please contact Prof. Erik Cambria for details 
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A Survey of Large Language Models for Healthcare: from Data, Technology, and Applications to Accountability and Ethics

Oct 09, 2023
Kai He, Rui Mao, Qika Lin, Yucheng Ruan, Xiang Lan, Mengling Feng, Erik Cambria

The utilization of large language models (LLMs) in the Healthcare domain has generated both excitement and concern due to their ability to effectively respond to freetext queries with certain professional knowledge. This survey outlines the capabilities of the currently developed LLMs for Healthcare and explicates their development process, with the aim of providing an overview of the development roadmap from traditional Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) to LLMs. Specifically, we first explore the potential of LLMs to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of various Healthcare applications highlighting both the strengths and limitations. Secondly, we conduct a comparison between the previous PLMs and the latest LLMs, as well as comparing various LLMs with each other. Then we summarize related Healthcare training data, training methods, optimization strategies, and usage. Finally, the unique concerns associated with deploying LLMs in Healthcare settings are investigated, particularly regarding fairness, accountability, transparency and ethics. Our survey provide a comprehensive investigation from perspectives of both computer science and Healthcare specialty. Besides the discussion about Healthcare concerns, we supports the computer science community by compiling a collection of open source resources, such as accessible datasets, the latest methodologies, code implementations, and evaluation benchmarks in the Github. Summarily, we contend that a significant paradigm shift is underway, transitioning from PLMs to LLMs. This shift encompasses a move from discriminative AI approaches to generative AI approaches, as well as a shift from model-centered methodologies to datacentered methodologies.

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Relightable Neural Human Assets from Multi-view Gradient Illuminations

Dec 16, 2022
Taotao Zhou, Kai He, Di Wu, Teng Xu, Qixuan Zhang, Kuixiang Shao, Wenzheng Chen, Lan Xu, Jingyi Yu

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Human modeling and relighting are two fundamental problems in computer vision and graphics, where high-quality datasets can largely facilitate related research. However, most existing human datasets only provide multi-view human images captured under the same illumination. Although valuable for modeling tasks, they are not readily used in relighting problems. To promote research in both fields, in this paper, we present UltraStage, a new 3D human dataset that contains more than 2K high-quality human assets captured under both multi-view and multi-illumination settings. Specifically, for each example, we provide 32 surrounding views illuminated with one white light and two gradient illuminations. In addition to regular multi-view images, gradient illuminations help recover detailed surface normal and spatially-varying material maps, enabling various relighting applications. Inspired by recent advances in neural representation, we further interpret each example into a neural human asset which allows novel view synthesis under arbitrary lighting conditions. We show our neural human assets can achieve extremely high capture performance and are capable of representing fine details such as facial wrinkles and cloth folds. We also validate UltraStage in single image relighting tasks, training neural networks with virtual relighted data from neural assets and demonstrating realistic rendering improvements over prior arts. UltraStage will be publicly available to the community to stimulate significant future developments in various human modeling and rendering tasks.

* 9 pages, 9 figures 
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Learning Interpretable Decision Rule Sets: A Submodular Optimization Approach

Jun 08, 2022
Fan Yang, Kai He, Linxiao Yang, Hongxia Du, Jingbang Yang, Bo Yang, Liang Sun

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Rule sets are highly interpretable logical models in which the predicates for decision are expressed in disjunctive normal form (DNF, OR-of-ANDs), or, equivalently, the overall model comprises an unordered collection of if-then decision rules. In this paper, we consider a submodular optimization based approach for learning rule sets. The learning problem is framed as a subset selection task in which a subset of all possible rules needs to be selected to form an accurate and interpretable rule set. We employ an objective function that exhibits submodularity and thus is amenable to submodular optimization techniques. To overcome the difficulty arose from dealing with the exponential-sized ground set of rules, the subproblem of searching a rule is casted as another subset selection task that asks for a subset of features. We show it is possible to write the induced objective function for the subproblem as a difference of two submodular (DS) functions to make it approximately solvable by DS optimization algorithms. Overall, the proposed approach is simple, scalable, and likely to be benefited from further research on submodular optimization. Experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

* NeurIPS 2021 (Spotlight) 
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GenISP: Neural ISP for Low-Light Machine Cognition

May 07, 2022
Igor Morawski, Yu-An Chen, Yu-Sheng Lin, Shusil Dangi, Kai He, Winston H. Hsu

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Object detection in low-light conditions remains a challenging but important problem with many practical implications. Some recent works show that, in low-light conditions, object detectors using raw image data are more robust than detectors using image data processed by a traditional ISP pipeline. To improve detection performance in low-light conditions, one can fine-tune the detector to use raw image data or use a dedicated low-light neural pipeline trained with paired low- and normal-light data to restore and enhance the image. However, different camera sensors have different spectral sensitivity and learning-based models using raw images process data in the sensor-specific color space. Thus, once trained, they do not guarantee generalization to other camera sensors. We propose to improve generalization to unseen camera sensors by implementing a minimal neural ISP pipeline for machine cognition, named GenISP, that explicitly incorporates Color Space Transformation to a device-independent color space. We also propose a two-stage color processing implemented by two image-to-parameter modules that take down-sized image as input and regress global color correction parameters. Moreover, we propose to train our proposed GenISP under the guidance of a pre-trained object detector and avoid making assumptions about perceptual quality of the image, but rather optimize the image representation for machine cognition. At the inference stage, GenISP can be paired with any object detector. We perform extensive experiments to compare our method to other low-light image restoration and enhancement methods in an extrinsic task-based evaluation and validate that GenISP can generalize to unseen sensors and object detectors. Finally, we contribute a low-light dataset of 7K raw images annotated with 46K bounding boxes for task-based benchmarking of future low-light image restoration and object detection.

* Accepted to CVPR 2022 Workshop NTIRE: New Trends in Image Restoration and Enhancement workshop and Challenges 
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NetRCA: An Effective Network Fault Cause Localization Algorithm

Mar 07, 2022
Chaoli Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Yingying Zhang, Linxiao Yang, Kai He, Qingsong Wen, Liang Sun

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Localizing the root cause of network faults is crucial to network operation and maintenance. However, due to the complicated network architectures and wireless environments, as well as limited labeled data, accurately localizing the true root cause is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named NetRCA to deal with this problem. Firstly, we extract effective derived features from the original raw data by considering temporal, directional, attribution, and interaction characteristics. Secondly, we adopt multivariate time series similarity and label propagation to generate new training data from both labeled and unlabeled data to overcome the lack of labeled samples. Thirdly, we design an ensemble model which combines XGBoost, rule set learning, attribution model, and graph algorithm, to fully utilize all data information and enhance performance. Finally, experiments and analysis are conducted on the real-world dataset from ICASSP 2022 AIOps Challenge to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of our approach.

* Accepted by ICASSP 2022. NetRCA is the solution of the First Place of 2022 ICASSP AIOps Challenge. All authors are contributed equally, and Qingsong Wen is the team leader (Team Name: MindOps). The website of 2022 ICASSP AIOps Challenge is 
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The Detection of Thoracic Abnormalities ChestX-Det10 Challenge Results

Oct 22, 2020
Jie Lian, Jingyu Liu, Yizhou Yu, Mengyuan Ding, Yaoci Lu, Yi Lu, Jie Cai, Deshou Lin, Miao Zhang, Zhe Wang, Kai He, Yijie Yu

Figure 1 for The Detection of Thoracic Abnormalities ChestX-Det10 Challenge Results

The detection of thoracic abnormalities challenge is organized by the Deepwise AI Lab. The challenge is divided into two rounds. In this paper, we present the results of 6 teams which reach the second round. The challenge adopts the ChestX-Det10 dateset proposed by the Deepwise AI Lab. ChestX-Det10 is the first chest X-Ray dataset with instance-level annotations, including 10 categories of disease/abnormality of 3,543 images. The annotations are located at In the challenge, we randomly split all data into 3001 images for training and 542 images for testing.

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