Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) is an approach that has advanced research and applications in computer vision, fueling modern recognition systems and generative models. We believe that the main ingredient to the success of CLIP is its data and not the model architecture or pre-training objective. However, CLIP only provides very limited information about its data and how it has been collected, leading to works that aim to reproduce CLIP's data by filtering with its model parameters. In this work, we intend to reveal CLIP's data curation approach and in our pursuit of making it open to the community introduce Metadata-Curated Language-Image Pre-training (MetaCLIP). MetaCLIP takes a raw data pool and metadata (derived from CLIP's concepts) and yields a balanced subset over the metadata distribution. Our experimental study rigorously isolates the model and training settings, concentrating solely on data. MetaCLIP applied to CommonCrawl with 400M image-text data pairs outperforms CLIP's data on multiple standard benchmarks. In zero-shot ImageNet classification, MetaCLIP achieves 70.8% accuracy, surpassing CLIP's 68.3% on ViT-B models. Scaling to 1B data, while maintaining the same training budget, attains 72.4%. Our observations hold across various model sizes, exemplified by ViT-H achieving 80.5%, without any bells-and-whistles. Curation code and training data distribution on metadata is made available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/MetaCLIP.
* 17 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2103.00020 by
The use of Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) is growing rapidly. For safe and efficient surface auto-driving, a reliable perception system is crucial. Such systems allow the vessels to sense their surroundings and make decisions based on the information gathered. During the perception process, free space segmentation is essential to distinguish the safe mission zone and segment the operational waterways. However, ASVs face particular challenges in free space segmentation due to nearshore reflection interference, complex water textures, and random motion vibrations caused by the water surface conditions. To deal with these challenges, we propose a visual temporal fusion based free space segmentation model to utilize the previous vision information. In addition, we also introduce a new evaluation procedure and a contour position based loss calculation function, which are more suitable for surface free space segmentation tasks. The proposed model and process are tested on a continuous video segmentation dataset and achieve both high-accuracy and robust results. The dataset is also made available along with this paper.
The recent breakthroughs in natural language processing for model pretraining on large quantities of data have opened the way for similar foundation models in computer vision. These models could greatly simplify the use of images in any system by producing all-purpose visual features, i.e., features that work across image distributions and tasks without finetuning. This work shows that existing pretraining methods, especially self-supervised methods, can produce such features if trained on enough curated data from diverse sources. We revisit existing approaches and combine different techniques to scale our pretraining in terms of data and model size. Most of the technical contributions aim at accelerating and stabilizing the training at scale. In terms of data, we propose an automatic pipeline to build a dedicated, diverse, and curated image dataset instead of uncurated data, as typically done in the self-supervised literature. In terms of models, we train a ViT model (Dosovitskiy et al., 2020) with 1B parameters and distill it into a series of smaller models that surpass the best available all-purpose features, OpenCLIP (Ilharco et al., 2021) on most of the benchmarks at image and pixel levels.
There has been a longstanding belief that generation can facilitate a true understanding of visual data. In line with this, we revisit generatively pre-training visual representations in light of recent interest in denoising diffusion models. While directly pre-training with diffusion models does not produce strong representations, we condition diffusion models on masked input and formulate diffusion models as masked autoencoders (DiffMAE). Our approach is capable of (i) serving as a strong initialization for downstream recognition tasks, (ii) conducting high-quality image inpainting, and (iii) being effortlessly extended to video where it produces state-of-the-art classification accuracy. We further perform a comprehensive study on the pros and cons of design choices and build connections between diffusion models and masked autoencoders.
Domain-adaptive pre-training (or DA-training for short), also known as post-training, aims to train a pre-trained general-purpose language model (LM) using an unlabeled corpus of a particular domain to adapt the LM so that end-tasks in the domain can give improved performances. However, existing DA-training methods are in some sense blind as they do not explicitly identify what knowledge in the LM should be preserved and what should be changed by the domain corpus. This paper shows that the existing methods are suboptimal and proposes a novel method to perform a more informed adaptation of the knowledge in the LM by (1) soft-masking the attention heads based on their importance to best preserve the general knowledge in the LM and (2) contrasting the representations of the general and the full (both general and domain knowledge) to learn an integrated representation with both general and domain-specific knowledge. Experimental results will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Large vision-language models are generally applicable to many downstream tasks, but come at an exorbitant training cost that only large institutions can afford. This paper trades generality for efficiency and presents Curation in Training (CiT), a simple and efficient vision-text learning algorithm that couples a data objective into training. CiT automatically yields quality data to speed-up contrastive image-text training and alleviates the need for an offline data filtering pipeline, allowing broad data sources (including raw image-text pairs from the web). CiT contains two loops: an outer loop curating the training data and an inner loop consuming the curated training data. The text encoder connects the two loops. Given metadata for tasks of interest, e.g., class names, and a large pool of image-text pairs, CiT alternatively selects relevant training data from the pool by measuring the similarity of their text embeddings and embeddings of the metadata. In our experiments, we observe that CiT can speed up training by over an order of magnitude, especially if the raw data size is large.
We present Masked Audio-Video Learners (MAViL) to train audio-visual representations. Our approach learns with three complementary forms of self-supervision: (1) reconstruction of masked audio and video input data, (2) intra- and inter-modal contrastive learning with masking, and (3) self-training by reconstructing joint audio-video contextualized features learned from the first two objectives. Pre-training with MAViL not only enables the model to perform well in audio-visual classification and retrieval tasks but also improves representations of each modality in isolation, without using information from the other modality for fine-tuning or inference. Empirically, MAViL sets a new state-of-the-art on AudioSet (53.1 mAP) and VGGSound (67.1% accuracy). For the first time, a self-supervised audio-visual model outperforms ones that use external supervision on these benchmarks. Code will be available soon.
Recent work on applying large language models (LMs) achieves impressive performance in many NLP applications. Adapting or posttraining an LM using an unlabeled domain corpus can produce even better performance for end-tasks in the domain. This paper proposes the problem of continually extending an LM by incrementally post-train the LM with a sequence of unlabeled domain corpora to expand its knowledge without forgetting its previous skills. The goal is to improve the few-shot end-task learning in these domains. The resulting system is called CPT (Continual PostTraining), which to our knowledge, is the first continual post-training system. Experimental results verify its effectiveness.
This paper studies a simple extension of image-based Masked Autoencoders (MAE) to self-supervised representation learning from audio spectrograms. Following the Transformer encoder-decoder design in MAE, our Audio-MAE first encodes audio spectrogram patches with a high masking ratio, feeding only the non-masked tokens through encoder layers. The decoder then re-orders and decodes the encoded context padded with mask tokens, in order to reconstruct the input spectrogram. We find it beneficial to incorporate local window attention in the decoder, as audio spectrograms are highly correlated in local time and frequency bands. We then fine-tune the encoder with a lower masking ratio on target datasets. Empirically, Audio-MAE sets new state-of-the-art performance on six audio and speech classification tasks, outperforming other recent models that use external supervised pre-training. The code and models will be at https://github.com/facebookresearch/AudioMAE.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) typically requires in-domain annotated data for supervised training/fine-tuning. It is a big challenge to scale ABSA to a large number of new domains. This paper aims to train a unified model that can perform zero-shot ABSA without using any annotated data for a new domain. We propose a method called contrastive post-training on review Natural Language Inference (CORN). Later ABSA tasks can be cast into NLI for zero-shot transfer. We evaluate CORN on ABSA tasks, ranging from aspect extraction (AE), aspect sentiment classification (ASC), to end-to-end aspect-based sentiment analysis (E2E ABSA), which show ABSA can be conducted without any human annotated ABSA data.