Previous entity disambiguation (ED) methods adopt a discriminative paradigm, where prediction is made based on matching scores between mention context and candidate entities using length-limited encoders. However, these methods often struggle to capture explicit discourse-level dependencies, resulting in incoherent predictions at the abstract level (e.g. topic or category). We propose CoherentED, an ED system equipped with novel designs aimed at enhancing the coherence of entity predictions. Our method first introduces an unsupervised variational autoencoder (VAE) to extract latent topic vectors of context sentences. This approach not only allows the encoder to handle longer documents more effectively, conserves valuable input space, but also keeps a topic-level coherence. Additionally, we incorporate an external category memory, enabling the system to retrieve relevant categories for undecided mentions. By employing step-by-step entity decisions, this design facilitates the modeling of entity-entity interactions, thereby maintaining maximum coherence at the category level. We achieve new state-of-the-art results on popular ED benchmarks, with an average improvement of 1.3 F1 points. Our model demonstrates particularly outstanding performance on challenging long-text scenarios.
Generative approaches powered by large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated emergent abilities in tasks that require complex reasoning abilities. Yet the generative nature still makes the generated content suffer from hallucinations, thus unsuitable for entity-centric tasks like entity linking (EL) requiring precise entity predictions over a large knowledge base. We present Instructed Generative Entity Linker (INSGENEL), the first approach that enables casual language models to perform entity linking over knowledge bases. Several methods to equip language models with EL capability were proposed in this work, including (i) a sequence-to-sequence training EL objective with instruction-tuning, (ii) a novel generative EL framework based on a light-weight potential mention retriever that frees the model from heavy and non-parallelizable decoding, achieving 4$\times$ speedup without compromise on linking metrics. INSGENEL outperforms previous generative alternatives with +6.8 F1 points gain on average, also with a huge advantage in training data efficiency and training compute consumption. In addition, our skillfully engineered in-context learning (ICL) framework for EL still lags behind INSGENEL significantly, reaffirming that the EL task remains a persistent hurdle for general LLMs.
Online recommender systems (RS) aim to match user needs with the vast amount of resources available on various platforms. A key challenge is to model user preferences accurately under the condition of data sparsity. To address this challenge, some methods have leveraged external user behavior data from multiple platforms to enrich user representation. However, all of these methods require a consistent user ID across platforms and ignore the information from similar users. In this study, we propose RUEL, a novel retrieval-based sequential recommender that can effectively incorporate external anonymous user behavior data from Edge browser logs to enhance recommendation. We first collect and preprocess a large volume of Edge browser logs over a one-year period and link them to target entities that correspond to candidate items in recommendation datasets. We then design a contrastive learning framework with a momentum encoder and a memory bank to retrieve the most relevant and diverse browsing sequences from the full browsing log based on the semantic similarity between user representations. After retrieval, we apply an item-level attentive selector to filter out noisy items and generate refined sequence embeddings for the final predictor. RUEL is the first method that connects user browsing data with typical recommendation datasets and can be generalized to various recommendation scenarios and datasets. We conduct extensive experiments on four real datasets for sequential recommendation tasks and demonstrate that RUEL significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baselines. We also conduct ablation studies and qualitative analysis to validate the effectiveness of each component of RUEL and provide additional insights into our method.
Large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable capacity for in-context learning (ICL), where learning a new task from just a few training examples is done without being explicitly pre-trained. However, despite the success of LLMs, there has been little understanding of how ICL learns the knowledge from the given prompts. In this paper, to make progress toward understanding the learning behaviour of ICL, we train the same LLMs with the same demonstration examples via ICL and supervised learning (SL), respectively, and investigate their performance under label perturbations (i.e., noisy labels and label imbalance) on a range of classification tasks. First, via extensive experiments, we find that gold labels have significant impacts on the downstream in-context performance, especially for large language models; however, imbalanced labels matter little to ICL across all model sizes. Second, when comparing with SL, we show empirically that ICL is less sensitive to label perturbations than SL, and ICL gradually attains comparable performance to SL as the model size increases.
Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs), such as StarCoder, have demonstrated exceptional performance in code-related tasks. However, most existing models are solely pre-trained on extensive raw code data without instruction fine-tuning. In this paper, we introduce WizardCoder, which empowers Code LLMs with complex instruction fine-tuning, by adapting the Evol-Instruct method to the domain of code. Through comprehensive experiments on four prominent code generation benchmarks, namely HumanEval, HumanEval+, MBPP, and DS-1000, we unveil the exceptional capabilities of our model. It surpasses all other open-source Code LLMs by a substantial margin. Moreover, our model even outperforms the largest closed LLMs, Anthropic's Claude and Google's Bard, on HumanEval and HumanEval+. Our code, model weights, and data are public at https://github.com/nlpxucan/WizardLM
Information retrieval (IR) plays a crucial role in locating relevant resources from vast amounts of data, and its applications have evolved from traditional knowledge bases to modern search engines (SEs). The emergence of large language models (LLMs) has further revolutionized the IR field by enabling users to interact with search systems in natural language. In this paper, we explore the advantages and disadvantages of LLMs and SEs, highlighting their respective strengths in understanding user-issued queries and retrieving up-to-date information. To leverage the benefits of both paradigms while circumventing their limitations, we propose InteR, a novel framework that facilitates knowledge refinement through interaction between SEs and LLMs. InteR allows SEs to expand knowledge in queries using LLM-generated knowledge collections and enables LLMs to enhance prompt formulation using SE-retrieved documents. This iterative refinement process augments the inputs of SEs and LLMs, leading to more accurate retrieval. Experiments on large-scale retrieval benchmarks involving web search and low-resource retrieval tasks demonstrate that InteR achieves overall superior zero-shot retrieval performance compared to state-of-the-art methods, even those using relevance judgment. Source code is available at https://github.com/Cyril-JZ/InteR
Large Language Models (LLMs) have significantly advanced natural language processing (NLP) with their impressive language understanding and generation capabilities. However, their performance may be suboptimal for domain-specific tasks that require specialized knowledge due to limited exposure to the related data. Additionally, the lack of transparency of most state-of-the-art (SOTA) LLMs, which can only be accessed via APIs, impedes further fine-tuning with domain custom data. Moreover, providing private data to the LLMs' owner leads to data privacy problems. To address these challenges, we propose the novel Parametric Knowledge Guiding (PKG) framework, which equips LLMs with a knowledge-guiding module to access relevant knowledge without altering the LLMs' parameters. Our PKG is based on open-source "white-box" language models, allowing offline memory of any knowledge that LLMs require. We demonstrate that our PKG framework can enhance the performance of "black-box" LLMs on a range of domain knowledge-intensive tasks that require factual (+7.9%), tabular (+11.9%), medical (+3.0%), and multimodal (+8.1%) knowledge.
Currently, learning better unsupervised sentence representations is the pursuit of many natural language processing communities. Lots of approaches based on pre-trained language models (PLMs) and contrastive learning have achieved promising results on this task. Experimentally, we observe that the over-smoothing problem reduces the capacity of these powerful PLMs, leading to sub-optimal sentence representations. In this paper, we present a Simple method named Self-Contrastive Learning (SSCL) to alleviate this issue, which samples negatives from PLMs intermediate layers, improving the quality of the sentence representation. Our proposed method is quite simple and can be easily extended to various state-of-the-art models for performance boosting, which can be seen as a plug-and-play contrastive framework for learning unsupervised sentence representation. Extensive results prove that SSCL brings the superior performance improvements of different strong baselines (e.g., BERT and SimCSE) on Semantic Textual Similarity and Transfer datasets. Our codes are available at https://github.com/nuochenpku/SSCL.