Large-scale pre-trained Vision & Language (VL) models have shown remarkable performance in many applications, enabling replacing a fixed set of supported classes with zero-shot open vocabulary reasoning over (almost arbitrary) natural language prompts. However, recent works have uncovered a fundamental weakness of these models. For example, their difficulty to understand Visual Language Concepts (VLC) that go 'beyond nouns' such as the meaning of non-object words (e.g., attributes, actions, relations, states, etc.), or difficulty in performing compositional reasoning such as understanding the significance of the order of the words in a sentence. In this work, we investigate to which extent purely synthetic data could be leveraged to teach these models to overcome such shortcomings without compromising their zero-shot capabilities. We contribute Synthetic Visual Concepts (SyViC) - a million-scale synthetic dataset and data generation codebase allowing to generate additional suitable data to improve VLC understanding and compositional reasoning of VL models. Additionally, we propose a general VL finetuning strategy for effectively leveraging SyViC towards achieving these improvements. Our extensive experiments and ablations on VL-Checklist, Winoground, and ARO benchmarks demonstrate that it is possible to adapt strong pre-trained VL models with synthetic data significantly enhancing their VLC understanding (e.g. by 9.9% on ARO and 4.3% on VL-Checklist) with under 1% drop in their zero-shot accuracy.
Deepfakes pose a serious threat to our digital society by fueling the spread of misinformation. It is essential to develop techniques that both detect them, and effectively alert the human user to their presence. Here, we introduce a novel deepfake detection framework that meets both of these needs. Our approach learns to generate attention maps of video artifacts, semi-supervised on human annotations. These maps make two contributions. First, they improve the accuracy and generalizability of a deepfake classifier, demonstrated across several deepfake detection datasets. Second, they allow us to generate an intuitive signal for the human user, in the form of "Deepfake Caricatures": transformations of the original deepfake video where attended artifacts are exacerbated to improve human recognition. Our approach, based on a mixture of human and artificial supervision, aims to further the development of countermeasures against fake visual content, and grants humans the ability to make their own judgment when presented with dubious visual media.
We introduce Ego4D, a massive-scale egocentric video dataset and benchmark suite. It offers 3,025 hours of daily-life activity video spanning hundreds of scenarios (household, outdoor, workplace, leisure, etc.) captured by 855 unique camera wearers from 74 worldwide locations and 9 different countries. The approach to collection is designed to uphold rigorous privacy and ethics standards with consenting participants and robust de-identification procedures where relevant. Ego4D dramatically expands the volume of diverse egocentric video footage publicly available to the research community. Portions of the video are accompanied by audio, 3D meshes of the environment, eye gaze, stereo, and/or synchronized videos from multiple egocentric cameras at the same event. Furthermore, we present a host of new benchmark challenges centered around understanding the first-person visual experience in the past (querying an episodic memory), present (analyzing hand-object manipulation, audio-visual conversation, and social interactions), and future (forecasting activities). By publicly sharing this massive annotated dataset and benchmark suite, we aim to push the frontier of first-person perception. Project page: https://ego4d-data.org/
Deep convolutional networks have recently achieved great success in video recognition, yet their practical realization remains a challenge due to the large amount of computational resources required to achieve robust recognition. Motivated by the effectiveness of quantization for boosting efficiency, in this paper, we propose a dynamic network quantization framework, that selects optimal precision for each frame conditioned on the input for efficient video recognition. Specifically, given a video clip, we train a very lightweight network in parallel with the recognition network, to produce a dynamic policy indicating which numerical precision to be used per frame in recognizing videos. We train both networks effectively using standard backpropagation with a loss to achieve both competitive performance and resource efficiency required for video recognition. Extensive experiments on four challenging diverse benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed approach provides significant savings in computation and memory usage while outperforming the existing state-of-the-art methods.
The self-attention-based model, transformer, is recently becoming the leading backbone in the field of computer vision. In spite of the impressive success made by transformers in a variety of vision tasks, it still suffers from heavy computation and intensive memory cost. To address this limitation, this paper presents an Interpretability-Aware REDundancy REDuction framework (IA-RED$^2$). We start by observing a large amount of redundant computation, mainly spent on uncorrelated input patches, and then introduce an interpretable module to dynamically and gracefully drop these redundant patches. This novel framework is then extended to a hierarchical structure, where uncorrelated tokens at different stages are gradually removed, resulting in a considerable shrinkage of computational cost. We include extensive experiments on both image and video tasks, where our method could deliver up to 1.4X speed-up for state-of-the-art models like DeiT and TimeSformer, by only sacrificing less than 0.7% accuracy. More importantly, contrary to other acceleration approaches, our method is inherently interpretable with substantial visual evidence, making vision transformer closer to a more human-understandable architecture while being lighter. We demonstrate that the interpretability that naturally emerged in our framework can outperform the raw attention learned by the original visual transformer, as well as those generated by off-the-shelf interpretation methods, with both qualitative and quantitative results. Project Page: http://people.csail.mit.edu/bpan/ia-red/.
Recent advances in representation learning have demonstrated an ability to represent information from different modalities such as video, text, and audio in a single high-level embedding vector. In this work we present a self-supervised learning framework that is able to learn a representation that captures finer levels of granularity across different modalities such as concepts or events represented by visual objects or spoken words. Our framework relies on a discretized embedding space created via vector quantization that is shared across different modalities. Beyond the shared embedding space, we propose a Cross-Modal Code Matching objective that forces the representations from different views (modalities) to have a similar distribution over the discrete embedding space such that cross-modal objects/actions localization can be performed without direct supervision. In our experiments we show that the proposed discretized multi-modal fine-grained representation (e.g., pixel/word/frame) can complement high-level summary representations (e.g., video/sentence/waveform) for improved performance on cross-modal retrieval tasks. We also observe that the discretized representation uses individual clusters to represent the same semantic concept across modalities.
Multi-modal learning, which focuses on utilizing various modalities to improve the performance of a model, is widely used in video recognition. While traditional multi-modal learning offers excellent recognition results, its computational expense limits its impact for many real-world applications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive multi-modal learning framework, called AdaMML, that selects on-the-fly the optimal modalities for each segment conditioned on the input for efficient video recognition. Specifically, given a video segment, a multi-modal policy network is used to decide what modalities should be used for processing by the recognition model, with the goal of improving both accuracy and efficiency. We efficiently train the policy network jointly with the recognition model using standard back-propagation. Extensive experiments on four challenging diverse datasets demonstrate that our proposed adaptive approach yields 35%-55% reduction in computation when compared to the traditional baseline that simply uses all the modalities irrespective of the input, while also achieving consistent improvements in accuracy over the state-of-the-art methods.
When people observe events, they are able to abstract key information and build concise summaries of what is happening. These summaries include contextual and semantic information describing the important high-level details (what, where, who and how) of the observed event and exclude background information that is deemed unimportant to the observer. With this in mind, the descriptions people generate for videos of different dynamic events can greatly improve our understanding of the key information of interest in each video. These descriptions can be captured in captions that provide expanded attributes for video labeling (e.g. actions/objects/scenes/sentiment/etc.) while allowing us to gain new insight into what people find important or necessary to summarize specific events. Existing caption datasets for video understanding are either small in scale or restricted to a specific domain. To address this, we present the Spoken Moments (S-MiT) dataset of 500k spoken captions each attributed to a unique short video depicting a broad range of different events. We collect our descriptions using audio recordings to ensure that they remain as natural and concise as possible while allowing us to scale the size of a large classification dataset. In order to utilize our proposed dataset, we present a novel Adaptive Mean Margin (AMM) approach to contrastive learning and evaluate our models on video/caption retrieval on multiple datasets. We show that our AMM approach consistently improves our results and that models trained on our Spoken Moments dataset generalize better than those trained on other video-caption datasets.