We propose a new approach for propagating stable probability distributions through neural networks. Our method is based on local linearization, which we show to be an optimal approximation in terms of total variation distance for the ReLU non-linearity. This allows propagating Gaussian and Cauchy input uncertainties through neural networks to quantify their output uncertainties. To demonstrate the utility of propagating distributions, we apply the proposed method to predicting calibrated confidence intervals and selective prediction on out-of-distribution data. The results demonstrate a broad applicability of propagating distributions and show the advantages of our method over other approaches such as moment matching.
Vision-language foundation models have shown remarkable performance in various zero-shot settings such as image retrieval, classification, or captioning. But so far, those models seem to fall behind when it comes to zero-shot localization of referential expressions and objects in images. As a result, they need to be fine-tuned for this task. In this paper, we show that pretrained vision-language (VL) models allow for zero-shot open-vocabulary object localization without any fine-tuning. To leverage those capabilities, we propose a Grounding Everything Module (GEM) that generalizes the idea of value-value attention introduced by CLIPSurgery to a self-self attention path. We show that the concept of self-self attention corresponds to clustering, thus enforcing groups of tokens arising from the same object to be similar while preserving the alignment with the language space. To further guide the group formation, we propose a set of regularizations that allows the model to finally generalize across datasets and backbones. We evaluate the proposed GEM framework on various benchmark tasks and datasets for semantic segmentation. It shows that GEM not only outperforms other training-free open-vocabulary localization methods, but also achieves state-of-the-art results on the recently proposed OpenImagesV7 large-scale segmentation benchmark.
Pre-training on massive video datasets has become essential to achieve high action recognition performance on smaller downstream datasets. However, most large-scale video datasets contain images of people and hence are accompanied with issues related to privacy, ethics, and data protection, often preventing them from being publicly shared for reproducible research. Existing work has attempted to alleviate these problems by blurring faces, downsampling videos, or training on synthetic data. On the other hand, analysis on the transferability of privacy-preserving pre-trained models to downstream tasks has been limited. In this work, we study this problem by first asking the question: can we pre-train models for human action recognition with data that does not include real humans? To this end, we present, for the first time, a benchmark that leverages real-world videos with humans removed and synthetic data containing virtual humans to pre-train a model. We then evaluate the transferability of the representation learned on this data to a diverse set of downstream action recognition benchmarks. Furthermore, we propose a novel pre-training strategy, called Privacy-Preserving MAE-Align, to effectively combine synthetic data and human-removed real data. Our approach outperforms previous baselines by up to 5% and closes the performance gap between human and no-human action recognition representations on downstream tasks, for both linear probing and fine-tuning. Our benchmark, code, and models are available at https://github.com/howardzh01/PPMA .
Instructional videos are an excellent source for learning multimodal representations by leveraging video-subtitle pairs extracted with automatic speech recognition systems (ASR) from the audio signal in the videos. However, in contrast to human-annotated captions, both speech and subtitles naturally differ from the visual content of the videos and thus provide only noisy supervision for multimodal learning. As a result, large-scale annotation-free web video training data remains sub-optimal for training text-video models. In this work, we propose to leverage the capability of large language models (LLMs) to obtain fine-grained video descriptions aligned with videos. Specifically, we prompt an LLM to create plausible video descriptions based on ASR narrations of the video for a large-scale instructional video dataset. To this end, we introduce a prompting method that is able to take into account a longer text of subtitles, allowing us to capture context beyond a single sentence. To align the captions to the video temporally, we prompt the LLM to generate timestamps for each produced caption based on the subtitles. In this way, we obtain human-style video captions at scale without human supervision. We apply our method to the subtitles of the HowTo100M dataset, creating a new large-scale dataset, HowToCaption. Our evaluation shows that the resulting captions not only significantly improve the performance over many different benchmark datasets for text-video retrieval but also lead to a disentangling of textual narration from the audio, boosting performance in text-video-audio tasks.
Large-scale noisy web image-text datasets have been proven to be efficient for learning robust vision-language models. However, when transferring them to the task of video retrieval, models still need to be fine-tuned on hand-curated paired text-video data to adapt to the diverse styles of video descriptions. To address this problem without the need for hand-annotated pairs, we propose a new setting, text-video retrieval with uncurated & unpaired data, that during training utilizes only text queries together with uncurated web videos without any paired text-video data. To this end, we propose an approach, In-Style, that learns the style of the text queries and transfers it to uncurated web videos. Moreover, to improve generalization, we show that one model can be trained with multiple text styles. To this end, we introduce a multi-style contrastive training procedure that improves the generalizability over several datasets simultaneously. We evaluate our model on retrieval performance over multiple datasets to demonstrate the advantages of our style transfer framework on the new task of uncurated & unpaired text-video retrieval and improve state-of-the-art performance on zero-shot text-video retrieval.
Self-supervised learning on large-scale multi-modal datasets allows learning semantically meaningful embeddings in a joint multi-modal representation space without relying on human annotations. These joint embeddings enable zero-shot cross-modal tasks like retrieval and classification. However, these methods often struggle to generalize well on out-of-domain data as they ignore the semantic structure present in modality-specific embeddings. In this context, we propose a novel Semantic-Structure-Preserving Consistency approach to improve generalizability by preserving the modality-specific relationships in the joint embedding space. To capture modality-specific semantic relationships between samples, we propose to learn multiple anchors and represent the multifaceted relationship between samples with respect to their relationship with these anchors. To assign multiple anchors to each sample, we propose a novel Multi-Assignment Sinkhorn-Knopp algorithm. Our experimentation demonstrates that our proposed approach learns semantically meaningful anchors in a self-supervised manner. Furthermore, our evaluation on MSR-VTT and YouCook2 datasets demonstrates that our proposed multi-anchor assignment based solution achieves state-of-the-art performance and generalizes to both inand out-of-domain datasets. Code: https://github.com/Swetha5/Multi_Sinkhorn_Knopp
Recent models such as XLS-R and Whisper have made multilingual speech technologies more accessible by pre-training on audio from around 100 spoken languages each. However, there are thousands of spoken languages worldwide, and adapting to new languages is an important problem. In this work, we aim to understand which model adapts better to languages unseen during pre-training. We fine-tune both models on 13 unseen languages and 18 seen languages. Our results show that the number of hours seen per language and language family during pre-training is predictive of how the models compare, despite the significant differences in the pre-training methods.
We present ISAAC (Input-baSed ApproximAte Curvature), a novel method that conditions the gradient using selected second-order information and has an asymptotically vanishing computational overhead, assuming a batch size smaller than the number of neurons. We show that it is possible to compute a good conditioner based on only the input to a respective layer without a substantial computational overhead. The proposed method allows effective training even in small-batch stochastic regimes, which makes it competitive to first-order as well as second-order methods.
Answering questions about complex situations in videos requires not only capturing the presence of actors, objects, and their relations but also the evolution of these relationships over time. A situation hyper-graph is a representation that describes situations as scene sub-graphs for video frames and hyper-edges for connected sub-graphs and has been proposed to capture all such information in a compact structured form. In this work, we propose an architecture for Video Question Answering (VQA) that enables answering questions related to video content by predicting situation hyper-graphs, coined Situation Hyper-Graph based Video Question Answering (SHG-VQA). To this end, we train a situation hyper-graph decoder to implicitly identify graph representations with actions and object/human-object relationships from the input video clip. and to use cross-attention between the predicted situation hyper-graphs and the question embedding to predict the correct answer. The proposed method is trained in an end-to-end manner and optimized by a VQA loss with the cross-entropy function and a Hungarian matching loss for the situation graph prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is extensively evaluated on two challenging benchmarks: AGQA and STAR. Our results show that learning the underlying situation hyper-graphs helps the system to significantly improve its performance for novel challenges of video question-answering tasks.
Though research has shown the complementarity of camera- and inertial-based data, datasets which offer both modalities remain scarce. In this paper we introduce WEAR, a multimodal benchmark dataset for both vision- and wearable-based Human Activity Recognition (HAR). The dataset comprises data from 18 participants performing a total of 18 different workout activities with untrimmed inertial (acceleration) and camera (egocentric video) data recorded at 10 different outside locations. WEAR features a diverse set of activities which are low in inter-class similarity and, unlike previous egocentric datasets, not defined by human-object-interactions nor originate from inherently distinct activity categories. Provided benchmark results reveal that single-modality architectures have different strengths and weaknesses in their prediction performance. Further, in light of the recent success of transformer-based video action detection models, we demonstrate their versatility by applying them in a plain fashion using vision, inertial and combined (vision + inertial) features as input. Results show that vision transformers are not only able to produce competitive results using only inertial data, but also can function as an architecture to fuse both modalities by means of simple concatenation, with the multimodal approach being able to produce the highest average mAP, precision and close-to-best F1-scores. Up until now, vision-based transformers have neither been explored in inertial nor in multimodal human activity recognition, making our approach the first to do so. The dataset and code to reproduce experiments is publicly available via: mariusbock.github.io/wear