Vision and Language (VL) models offer an effective method for aligning representation spaces of images and text, leading to numerous applications such as cross-modal retrieval, visual question answering, captioning, and more. However, the aligned image-text spaces learned by all the popular VL models are still suffering from the so-called `object bias' - their representations behave as `bags of nouns', mostly ignoring or downsizing the attributes, relations, and states of objects described/appearing in texts/images. Although some great attempts at fixing these `compositional reasoning' issues were proposed in the recent literature, the problem is still far from being solved. In this paper, we uncover two factors limiting the VL models' compositional reasoning performance. These two factors are properties of the paired VL dataset used for finetuning and pre-training the VL model: (i) the caption quality, or in other words `image-alignment', of the texts; and (ii) the `density' of the captions in the sense of mentioning all the details appearing on the image. We propose a fine-tuning approach for automatically treating these factors leveraging a standard VL dataset (CC3M). Applied to CLIP, we demonstrate its significant compositional reasoning performance increase of up to $\sim27\%$ over the base model, up to $\sim20\%$ over the strongest baseline, and by $6.7\%$ on average.
Large-scale pre-trained Vision & Language (VL) models have shown remarkable performance in many applications, enabling replacing a fixed set of supported classes with zero-shot open vocabulary reasoning over (almost arbitrary) natural language prompts. However, recent works have uncovered a fundamental weakness of these models. For example, their difficulty to understand Visual Language Concepts (VLC) that go 'beyond nouns' such as the meaning of non-object words (e.g., attributes, actions, relations, states, etc.), or difficulty in performing compositional reasoning such as understanding the significance of the order of the words in a sentence. In this work, we investigate to which extent purely synthetic data could be leveraged to teach these models to overcome such shortcomings without compromising their zero-shot capabilities. We contribute Synthetic Visual Concepts (SyViC) - a million-scale synthetic dataset and data generation codebase allowing to generate additional suitable data to improve VLC understanding and compositional reasoning of VL models. Additionally, we propose a general VL finetuning strategy for effectively leveraging SyViC towards achieving these improvements. Our extensive experiments and ablations on VL-Checklist, Winoground, and ARO benchmarks demonstrate that it is possible to adapt strong pre-trained VL models with synthetic data significantly enhancing their VLC understanding (e.g. by 9.9% on ARO and 4.3% on VL-Checklist) with under 1% drop in their zero-shot accuracy.
The goal of Anomaly-Detection (AD) is to identify outliers, or outlying regions, from some unknown distribution given only a set of positive (good) examples. Few-Shot AD (FSAD) aims to solve the same task with a minimal amount of normal examples. Recent embedding-based methods, that compare the embedding vectors of queries to a set of reference embeddings, have demonstrated impressive results for FSAD, where as little as one good example is provided. A different approach, image-reconstruction-based, has been historically used for AD. The idea is to train a model to recover normal images from corrupted observations, assuming that the model will fail to recover regions when encountered with an out-of-distribution image. However, image-reconstruction-based methods were not yet used in the low-shot regime as they need to be trained on a diverse set of normal images in order to properly perform. We suggest using Masked Auto-Encoder (MAE), a self-supervised transformer model trained for recovering missing image regions based on their surroundings for FSAD. We show that MAE performs well by pre-training on an arbitrary set of natural images (ImageNet) and only fine-tuning on a small set of normal images. We name this method MAEDAY. We further find that MAEDAY provides an orthogonal signal to the embedding-based methods and the ensemble of the two approaches achieves very strong SOTA results. We also present a novel task of Zero-Shot AD (ZSAD) where no normal samples are available at training time. We show that MAEDAY performs surprisingly well at this task. Finally, we provide a new dataset for detecting foreign objects on the ground and demonstrate superior results for this task as well. Code is available at https://github.com/EliSchwartz/MAEDAY .
Vision and Language (VL) models have demonstrated remarkable zero-shot performance in a variety of tasks. However, some aspects of complex language understanding still remain a challenge. We introduce the collective notion of Structured Vision&Language Concepts (SVLC) which includes object attributes, relations, and states which are present in the text and visible in the image. Recent studies have shown that even the best VL models struggle with SVLC. A possible way of fixing this issue is by collecting dedicated datasets for teaching each SVLC type, yet this might be expensive and time-consuming. Instead, we propose a more elegant data-driven approach for enhancing VL models' understanding of SVLCs that makes more effective use of existing VL pre-training datasets and does not require any additional data. While automatic understanding of image structure still remains largely unsolved, language structure is much better modeled and understood, allowing for its effective utilization in teaching VL models. In this paper, we propose various techniques based on language structure understanding that can be used to manipulate the textual part of off-the-shelf paired VL datasets. VL models trained with the updated data exhibit a significant improvement of up to 15% in their SVLC understanding with only a mild degradation in their zero-shot capabilities both when training from scratch or fine-tuning a pre-trained model.
Nowadays, there is an abundance of data involving images and surrounding free-form text weakly corresponding to those images. Weakly Supervised phrase-Grounding (WSG) deals with the task of using this data to learn to localize (or to ground) arbitrary text phrases in images without any additional annotations. However, most recent SotA methods for WSG assume the existence of a pre-trained object detector, relying on it to produce the ROIs for localization. In this work, we focus on the task of Detector-Free WSG (DF-WSG) to solve WSG without relying on a pre-trained detector. We directly learn everything from the images and associated free-form text pairs, thus potentially gaining an advantage on the categories unsupported by the detector. The key idea behind our proposed Grounding by Separation (GbS) method is synthesizing `text to image-regions' associations by random alpha-blending of arbitrary image pairs and using the corresponding texts of the pair as conditions to recover the alpha map from the blended image via a segmentation network. At test time, this allows using the query phrase as a condition for a non-blended query image, thus interpreting the test image as a composition of a region corresponding to the phrase and the complement region. Using this approach we demonstrate a significant accuracy improvement, of up to $8.5\%$ over previous DF-WSG SotA, for a range of benchmarks including Flickr30K, Visual Genome, and ReferIt, as well as a significant complementary improvement (above $7\%$) over the detector-based approaches for WSG.
In this paper, we propose a new few-shot learning method called StarNet, which is an end-to-end trainable non-parametric star-model few-shot classifier. While being meta-trained using only image-level class labels, StarNet learns not only to predict the class labels for each query image of a few-shot task, but also to localize (via a heatmap) what it believes to be the key image regions supporting its prediction, thus effectively detecting the instances of the novel categories. The localization is enabled by the StarNet's ability to find large, arbitrarily shaped, semantically matching regions between all pairs of support and query images of a few-shot task. We evaluate StarNet on multiple few-shot classification benchmarks attaining significant state-of-the-art improvement on the CUB and ImageNetLOC-FS, and smaller improvements on other benchmarks. At the same time, in many cases, StarNet provides plausible explanations for its class label predictions, by highlighting the correctly paired novel category instances on the query and on its best matching support (for the predicted class). In addition, we test the proposed approach on the previously unexplored and challenging task of Weakly Supervised Few-Shot Object Detection (WS-FSOD), obtaining significant improvements over the baselines.
Network architecture search (NAS) achieves state-of-the-art results in various tasks such as classification and semantic segmentation. Recently, a reinforcement learning-based approach has been proposed for Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) search. In this work, we propose an alternative strategy for GAN search by using a method called DEGAS (Differentiable Efficient GenerAtor Search), which focuses on efficiently finding the generator in the GAN. Our search algorithm is inspired by the differential architecture search strategy and the Global Latent Optimization (GLO) procedure. This leads to both an efficient and stable GAN search. After the generator architecture is found, it can be plugged into any existing framework for GAN training. For CTGAN, which we use in this work, the new model outperforms the original inception score results by 0.25 for CIFAR-10 and 0.77 for STL. It also gets better results than the RL based GAN search methods in shorter search time.
Few-Shot Learning (FSL) is a topic of rapidly growing interest. Typically, in FSL a model is trained on a dataset consisting of many small tasks (meta-tasks) and learns to adapt to novel tasks that it will encounter during test time. This is also referred to as meta-learning. So far, meta-learning FSL methods have focused on optimizing parameters of pre-defined network architectures, in order to make them easily adaptable to novel tasks. Moreover, it was observed that, in general, larger architectures perform better than smaller ones up to a certain saturation point (and even degrade due to over-fitting). However, little attention has been given to explicitly optimizing the architectures for FSL, nor to an adaptation of the architecture at test time to particular novel tasks. In this work, we propose to employ tools borrowed from the Differentiable Neural Architecture Search (D-NAS) literature in order to optimize the architecture for FSL without over-fitting. Additionally, to make the architecture task adaptive, we propose the concept of `MetAdapt Controller' modules. These modules are added to the model and are meta-trained to predict the optimal network connections for a given novel task. Using the proposed approach we observe state-of-the-art results on two popular few-shot benchmarks: miniImageNet and FC100.
Automatic methods for Neural Architecture Search (NAS) have been shown to produce state-of-the-art network models, yet, their main drawback is the computational complexity of the search process. As some primal methods optimized over a discrete search space, thousands of days of GPU were required for convergence. A recent approach is based on constructing a differentiable search space that enables gradient-based optimization, thus reducing the search time to a few days. While successful, such methods still include some incontinuous steps, e.g., the pruning of many weak connections at once. In this paper, we propose a differentiable search space that allows the annealing of architecture weights, while gradually pruning inferior operations, thus the search converges to a single output network in a continuous manner. Experiments on several vision datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with respect to the search cost, accuracy and the memory footprint of the achieved model.