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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Self-supervised Graph Learning for Recommendation

Oct 21, 2020
Jiancan Wu, Xiang Wang, Fuli Feng, Xiangnan He, Liang Chen, Jianxun Lian, Xing Xie

Representation learning on user-item graph for recommendation has evolved from using single ID or interaction history to exploiting higher-order neighbors. This leads to the success of graph convolution networks (GCNs) for recommendation such as PinSage and LightGCN. Despite effectiveness, we argue that they suffer from two limitations: (1) high-degree nodes exert larger impact on the representation learning, deteriorating the recommendations of low-degree (long-tail) items; and (2) representations are vulnerable to noisy interactions, as the neighborhood aggregation scheme further enlarges the impact of observed edges. In this work, we explore self-supervised learning on user-item graph, so as to improve the accuracy and robustness of GCNs for recommendation. The idea is to supplement the classical supervised task of recommendation with an auxiliary self-supervised task, which reinforces node representation learning via self-discrimination. Specifically, we generate multiple views of a node, maximizing the agreement between different views of the same node compared to that of other nodes. We devise four operators to generate the views -- embedding masking, embedding dropout, node dropout, and edge dropout -- that augment node representation from two perspectives of ID embedding and graph structure. We term this new learning paradigm as \textit{Self-supervised Graph Learning} (SGL), implementing it on the state-of-the-art model LightGCN. Empirical studies on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of SGL, which improves the recommendation accuracy, especially on long-tail items, and the robustness against interaction noises.

* 11 pages, 7 pages, 5 tables 

Hybrid Q-Learning Applied to Ubiquitous recommender system

Mar 30, 2014
Djallel Bouneffouf

Ubiquitous information access becomes more and more important nowadays and research is aimed at making it adapted to users. Our work consists in applying machine learning techniques in order to bring a solution to some of the problems concerning the acceptance of the system by users. To achieve this, we propose a fundamental shift in terms of how we model the learning of recommender system: inspired by models of human reasoning developed in robotic, we combine reinforcement learning and case-base reasoning to define a recommendation process that uses these two approaches for generating recommendations on different context dimensions (social, temporal, geographic). We describe an implementation of the recommender system based on this framework. We also present preliminary results from experiments with the system and show how our approach increases the recommendation quality.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1301.4351, arXiv:1303.2308 

Exploiting Data Sparsity in Secure Cross-Platform Social Recommendation

Feb 15, 2022
Jamie Cui, Chaochao Chen, Lingjuan Lyu, Carl Yang, Li Wang

Social recommendation has shown promising improvements over traditional systems since it leverages social correlation data as an additional input. Most existing work assumes that all data are available to the recommendation platform. However, in practice, user-item interaction data (e.g.,rating) and user-user social data are usually generated by different platforms, and both of which contain sensitive information. Therefore, "How to perform secure and efficient social recommendation across different platforms, where the data are highly-sparse in nature" remains an important challenge. In this work, we bring secure computation techniques into social recommendation, and propose S3Rec, a sparsity-aware secure cross-platform social recommendation framework. As a result, our model can not only improve the recommendation performance of the rating platform by incorporating the sparse social data on the social platform, but also protect data privacy of both platforms. Moreover, to further improve model training efficiency, we propose two secure sparse matrix multiplication protocols based on homomorphic encryption and private information retrieval. Our experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of S3Rec.


PURS: Personalized Unexpected Recommender System for Improving User Satisfaction

Jun 05, 2021
Pan Li, Maofei Que, Zhichao Jiang, Yao Hu, Alexander Tuzhilin

Classical recommender system methods typically face the filter bubble problem when users only receive recommendations of their familiar items, making them bored and dissatisfied. To address the filter bubble problem, unexpected recommendations have been proposed to recommend items significantly deviating from user's prior expectations and thus surprising them by presenting "fresh" and previously unexplored items to the users. In this paper, we describe a novel Personalized Unexpected Recommender System (PURS) model that incorporates unexpectedness into the recommendation process by providing multi-cluster modeling of user interests in the latent space and personalized unexpectedness via the self-attention mechanism and via selection of an appropriate unexpected activation function. Extensive offline experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate that the proposed PURS model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline approaches in terms of both accuracy and unexpectedness measures. In addition, we conduct an online A/B test at a major video platform Alibaba-Youku, where our model achieves over 3\% increase in the average video view per user metric. The proposed model is in the process of being deployed by the company.

* Accepted to RecSys20 

URIR: Recommendation algorithm of user RNN encoder and item encoder based on knowledge graph

Nov 01, 2021
Na zhao, Zhen Long, Zhi-Dan Zhao, Jian Wang

Due to a large amount of information, it is difficult for users to find what they are interested in among the many choices. In order to improve users' experience, recommendation systems have been widely used in music recommendations, movie recommendations, online shopping, and other scenarios. Recently, Knowledge Graph (KG) has been proven to be an effective tool to improve the performance of recommendation systems. However, a huge challenge in applying knowledge graphs for recommendation is how to use knowledge graphs to obtain better user codes and item codes. In response to this problem, this research proposes a user Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) encoder and item encoder recommendation algorithm based on Knowledge Graph (URIR). This study encodes items by capturing high-level neighbor information to generate items' representation vectors and applies an RNN and items' representation vectors to encode users to generate users' representation vectors, and then perform inner product operation on users' representation vectors and items' representation vectors to get probabilities of users interaction with items. Numerical experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate that URIR is superior performance to state-of-the-art algorithms in indicators such as AUC, Precision, Recall, and MRR. This implies that URIR can effectively use knowledge graph to obtain better user codes and item codes, thereby obtaining better recommendation results.


Goal-Oriented Next Best Activity Recommendation using Reinforcement Learning

May 06, 2022
Prerna Agarwal, Avani Gupta, Renuka Sindhgatta, Sampath Dechu

Recommending a sequence of activities for an ongoing case requires that the recommendations conform to the underlying business process and meet the performance goal of either completion time or process outcome. Existing work on next activity prediction can predict the future activity but cannot provide guarantees of the prediction being conformant or meeting the goal. Hence, we propose a goal-oriented next best activity recommendation. Our proposed framework uses a deep learning model to predict the next best activity and an estimated value of a goal given the activity. A reinforcement learning method explores the sequence of activities based on the estimates likely to meet one or more goals. We further address a real-world problem of multiple goals by introducing an additional reward function to balance the outcome of a recommended activity and satisfy the goal. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on four real-world datasets with different characteristics. The results show that the recommendations from our proposed approach outperform in goal satisfaction and conformance compared to the existing state-of-the-art next best activity recommendation techniques.


Deep Autoencoder for Recommender Systems: Parameter Influence Analysis

Dec 25, 2018
Dai Hoang Tran, Zawar Hussain, Wei Emma Zhang, Nguyen Lu Dang Khoa, Nguyen H. Tran, Quan Z. Sheng

Recommender systems have recently attracted many researchers in the deep learning community. The state-of-the-art deep neural network models used in recommender systems are typically multilayer perceptron and deep Autoencoder (DAE), among which DAE usually shows better performance due to its superior capability to reconstruct the inputs. However, we found existing DAE recommendation systems that have similar implementations on similar datasets result in vastly different parameter settings. In this work, we have built a flexible DAE model, named FlexEncoder that uses configurable parameters and unique features to analyse the parameter influences on the prediction accuracy of recommender systems. This will help us identify the best-performance parameters given a dataset. Extensive evaluation on the MovieLens datasets are conducted, which drives our conclusions on the influences of DAE parameters. Specifically, we find that DAE parameters strongly affect the prediction accuracy of the recommender systems, and the effect is transferable to similar datasets in a larger size. We open our code to public which could benefit both new users for DAE -- they can quickly understand how DAE works for recommendation systems, and experienced DAE users -- it easier for them to tune the parameters on different datasets.

* 11 pages, ACIS 2018, 

Holistic Combination of Structural and Textual Code Information for Context based API Recommendation

Oct 15, 2020
Chi Chen, Xin Peng, Zhenchang Xing, Jun Sun, Xin Wang, Yifan Zhao, Wenyun Zhao

Context based API recommendation is an important way to help developers find the needed APIs effectively and efficiently. For effective API recommendation, we need not only a joint view of both structural and textual code information, but also a holistic view of correlated API usage in control and data flow graph as a whole. Unfortunately, existing API recommendation methods exploit structural or textual code information separately. In this work, we propose a novel API recommendation approach called APIRec-CST (API Recommendation by Combining Structural and Textual code information). APIRec-CST is a deep learning model that combines the API usage with the text information in the source code based on an API Context Graph Network and a Code Token Network that simultaneously learn structural and textual features for API recommendation. We apply APIRec-CST to train a model for JDK library based on 1,914 open-source Java projects and evaluate the accuracy and MRR (Mean Reciprocal Rank) of API recommendation with another 6 open-source projects. The results show that our approach achieves respectively a top-1, top-5, top-10 accuracy and MRR of 60.3%, 81.5%, 87.7% and 69.4%, and significantly outperforms an existing graph-based statistical approach and a tree-based deep learning approach for API recommendation. A further analysis shows that textual code information makes sense and improves the accuracy and MRR. We also conduct a user study in which two groups of students are asked to finish 6 programming tasks with or without our APIRec-CST plugin. The results show that APIRec-CST can help the students to finish the tasks faster and more accurately and the feedback on the usability is overwhelmingly positive.


J-Recs: Principled and Scalable Recommendation Justification

Nov 11, 2020
Namyong Park, Andrey Kan, Christos Faloutsos, Xin Luna Dong

Online recommendation is an essential functionality across a variety of services, including e-commerce and video streaming, where items to buy, watch, or read are suggested to users. Justifying recommendations, i.e., explaining why a user might like the recommended item, has been shown to improve user satisfaction and persuasiveness of the recommendation. In this paper, we develop a method for generating post-hoc justifications that can be applied to the output of any recommendation algorithm. Existing post-hoc methods are often limited in providing diverse justifications, as they either use only one of many available types of input data, or rely on the predefined templates. We address these limitations of earlier approaches by developing J-Recs, a method for producing concise and diverse justifications. J-Recs is a recommendation model-agnostic method that generates diverse justifications based on various types of product and user data (e.g., purchase history and product attributes). The challenge of jointly processing multiple types of data is addressed by designing a principled graph-based approach for justification generation. In addition to theoretical analysis, we present an extensive evaluation on synthetic and real-world data. Our results show that J-Recs satisfies desirable properties of justifications, and efficiently produces effective justifications, matching user preferences up to 20% more accurately than baselines.

* ICDM 2020 

UPRec: User-Aware Pre-training for Recommender Systems

Feb 22, 2021
Chaojun Xiao, Ruobing Xie, Yuan Yao, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun, Xu Zhang, Leyu Lin

Existing sequential recommendation methods rely on large amounts of training data and usually suffer from the data sparsity problem. To tackle this, the pre-training mechanism has been widely adopted, which attempts to leverage large-scale data to perform self-supervised learning and transfer the pre-trained parameters to downstream tasks. However, previous pre-trained models for recommendation focus on leverage universal sequence patterns from user behaviour sequences and item information, whereas ignore capturing personalized interests with the heterogeneous user information, which has been shown effective in contributing to personalized recommendation. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance pre-trained models with heterogeneous user information, called User-aware Pre-training for Recommendation (UPRec). Specifically, UPRec leverages the user attributes andstructured social graphs to construct self-supervised objectives in the pre-training stage and proposes two user-aware pre-training tasks. Comprehensive experimental results on several real-world large-scale recommendation datasets demonstrate that UPRec can effectively integrate user information into pre-trained models and thus provide more appropriate recommendations for users.

* This paper has been submitted to IEEE TKDE