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Zhiwei Liu

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Multi-view Graph Convolution for Participant Recommendation

Nov 20, 2023
Xiaolong Liu, Liangwei Yang, Chen Wang, Mingdai Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Philip S. Yu

Social networks have become essential for people's lives. The proliferation of web services further expands social networks at an unprecedented scale, leading to immeasurable commercial value for online platforms. Recently, the group buying (GB) business mode is prevalent and also becoming more popular in E-commerce. GB explicitly forms groups of users with similar interests to secure better discounts from the merchants, often operating within social networks. It is a novel way to further unlock the commercial value by explicitly utilizing the online social network in E-commerce. Participant recommendation, a fundamental problem emerging together with GB, aims to find the participants for a launched group buying process with an initiator and a target item to increase the GB success rate. This paper proposes Multi-View Graph Convolution for Participant Recommendation (MVPRec) to tackle this problem. To differentiate the roles of users (Initiator/Participant) within the GB process, we explicitly reconstruct historical GB data into initiator-view and participant-view graphs. Together with the social graph, we obtain a multi-view user representation with graph encoders. Then MVPRec fuses the GB and social representation with an attention module to obtain the user representation and learns a matching score with the initiator's social friends via a multi-head attention mechanism. Social friends with the Top-k matching score are recommended for the corresponding GB process. Experiments on three datasets justify the effectiveness of MVPRec in the emerging participant recommendation problem.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, 2023 IEEE International Conference on Big Data 
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Group-Aware Interest Disentangled Dual-Training for Personalized Recommendation

Nov 16, 2023
Xiaolong Liu, Liangwei Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Xiaohan Li, Mingdai Yang, Chen Wang, Philip S. Yu

Personalized recommender systems aim to predict users' preferences for items. It has become an indispensable part of online services. Online social platforms enable users to form groups based on their common interests. The users' group participation on social platforms reveals their interests and can be utilized as side information to mitigate the data sparsity and cold-start problem in recommender systems. Users join different groups out of different interests. In this paper, we generate group representation from the user's interests and propose IGRec (Interest-based Group enhanced Recommendation) to utilize the group information accurately. It consists of four modules. (1) Interest disentangler via self-gating that disentangles users' interests from their initial embedding representation. (2) Interest aggregator that generates the interest-based group representation by Gumbel-Softmax aggregation on the group members' interests. (3) Interest-based group aggregation that fuses user's representation with the participated group representation. (4) A dual-trained rating prediction module to utilize both user-item and group-item interactions. We conduct extensive experiments on three publicly available datasets. Results show IGRec can effectively alleviate the data sparsity problem and enhance the recommender system with interest-based group representation. Experiments on the group recommendation task further show the informativeness of interest-based group representation.

* 10 pages, 7 figures, 2023 IEEE International Conference on Big Data 
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Emotion Detection for Misinformation: A Review

Nov 01, 2023
Zhiwei Liu, Tianlin Zhang, Kailai Yang, Paul Thompson, Zeping Yu, Sophia Ananiadou

With the advent of social media, an increasing number of netizens are sharing and reading posts and news online. However, the huge volumes of misinformation (e.g., fake news and rumors) that flood the internet can adversely affect people's lives, and have resulted in the emergence of rumor and fake news detection as a hot research topic. The emotions and sentiments of netizens, as expressed in social media posts and news, constitute important factors that can help to distinguish fake news from genuine news and to understand the spread of rumors. This article comprehensively reviews emotion-based methods for misinformation detection. We begin by explaining the strong links between emotions and misinformation. We subsequently provide a detailed analysis of a range of misinformation detection methods that employ a variety of emotion, sentiment and stance-based features, and describe their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we discuss a number of ongoing challenges in emotion-based misinformation detection based on large language models and suggest future research directions, including data collection (multi-platform, multilingual), annotation, benchmark, multimodality, and interpretability.

* 30 pages, 11 figures 
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Uncertainty-guided Boundary Learning for Imbalanced Social Event Detection

Oct 30, 2023
Jiaqian Ren, Hao Peng, Lei Jiang, Zhiwei Liu, Jia Wu, Zhengtao Yu, Philip S. Yu

Real-world social events typically exhibit a severe class-imbalance distribution, which makes the trained detection model encounter a serious generalization challenge. Most studies solve this problem from the frequency perspective and emphasize the representation or classifier learning for tail classes. While in our observation, compared to the rarity of classes, the calibrated uncertainty estimated from well-trained evidential deep learning networks better reflects model performance. To this end, we propose a novel uncertainty-guided class imbalance learning framework - UCL$_{SED}$, and its variant - UCL-EC$_{SED}$, for imbalanced social event detection tasks. We aim to improve the overall model performance by enhancing model generalization to those uncertain classes. Considering performance degradation usually comes from misclassifying samples as their confusing neighboring classes, we focus on boundary learning in latent space and classifier learning with high-quality uncertainty estimation. First, we design a novel uncertainty-guided contrastive learning loss, namely UCL and its variant - UCL-EC, to manipulate distinguishable representation distribution for imbalanced data. During training, they force all classes, especially uncertain ones, to adaptively adjust a clear separable boundary in the feature space. Second, to obtain more robust and accurate class uncertainty, we combine the results of multi-view evidential classifiers via the Dempster-Shafer theory under the supervision of an additional calibration method. We conduct experiments on three severely imbalanced social event datasets including Events2012\_100, Events2018\_100, and CrisisLexT\_7. Our model significantly improves social event representation and classification tasks in almost all classes, especially those uncertain ones.

* TKDE 2023  
* Accepted by TKDE 2023 
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Unified Pretraining for Recommendation via Task Hypergraphs

Oct 20, 2023
Mingdai Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Liangwei Yang, Xiaolong Liu, Chen Wang, Hao Peng, Philip S. Yu

Although pretraining has garnered significant attention and popularity in recent years, its application in graph-based recommender systems is relatively limited. It is challenging to exploit prior knowledge by pretraining in widely used ID-dependent datasets. On one hand, user-item interaction history in one dataset can hardly be transferred to other datasets through pretraining, where IDs are different. On the other hand, pretraining and finetuning on the same dataset leads to a high risk of overfitting. In this paper, we propose a novel multitask pretraining framework named Unified Pretraining for Recommendation via Task Hypergraphs. For a unified learning pattern to handle diverse requirements and nuances of various pretext tasks, we design task hypergraphs to generalize pretext tasks to hyperedge prediction. A novel transitional attention layer is devised to discriminatively learn the relevance between each pretext task and recommendation. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets verify the superiority of UPRTH. Additional detailed investigations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

* Accepted by WSDM 2024 
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Knowledge Graph Context-Enhanced Diversified Recommendation

Oct 20, 2023
Xiaolong Liu, Liangwei Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Mingdai Yang, Chen Wang, Hao Peng, Philip S. Yu

The field of Recommender Systems (RecSys) has been extensively studied to enhance accuracy by leveraging users' historical interactions. Nonetheless, this persistent pursuit of accuracy frequently engenders diminished diversity, culminating in the well-recognized "echo chamber" phenomenon. Diversified RecSys has emerged as a countermeasure, placing diversity on par with accuracy and garnering noteworthy attention from academic circles and industry practitioners. This research explores the realm of diversified RecSys within the intricate context of knowledge graphs (KG). These KGs act as repositories of interconnected information concerning entities and items, offering a propitious avenue to amplify recommendation diversity through the incorporation of insightful contextual information. Our contributions include introducing an innovative metric, Entity Coverage, and Relation Coverage, which effectively quantifies diversity within the KG domain. Additionally, we introduce the Diversified Embedding Learning (DEL) module, meticulously designed to formulate user representations that possess an innate awareness of diversity. In tandem with this, we introduce a novel technique named Conditional Alignment and Uniformity (CAU). It adeptly encodes KG item embeddings while preserving contextual integrity. Collectively, our contributions signify a substantial stride towards augmenting the panorama of recommendation diversity within the realm of KG-informed RecSys paradigms.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, accepted by WSDM 2024 
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Collaborative Contextualization: Bridging the Gap between Collaborative Filtering and Pre-trained Language Model

Oct 13, 2023
Chen Wang, Liangwei Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Xiaolong Liu, Mingdai Yang, Yueqing Liang, Philip S. Yu

Traditional recommender systems have heavily relied on identity representations (IDs) to model users and items, while the ascendancy of pre-trained language model (PLM) encoders has enriched the modeling of contextual item descriptions. However, PLMs, although effective in addressing few-shot, zero-shot, or unified modeling scenarios, often neglect the crucial collaborative filtering signal. This neglect gives rise to two pressing challenges: (1) Collaborative Contextualization, the seamless integration of collaborative signals with contextual representations. (2) the imperative to bridge the representation gap between ID-based representations and contextual representations while preserving their contextual semantics. In this paper, we propose CollabContext, a novel model that adeptly combines collaborative filtering signals with contextual representations and aligns these representations within the contextual space, preserving essential contextual semantics. Experimental results across three real-world datasets demonstrate substantial improvements. Leveraging collaborative contextualization, CollabContext can also be effectively applied to cold-start scenarios, achieving remarkable enhancements in recommendation performance. The code is available after the conference accepts the paper.

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CodeFuse-13B: A Pretrained Multi-lingual Code Large Language Model

Oct 10, 2023
Peng Di, Jianguo Li, Hang Yu, Wei Jiang, Wenting Cai, Yang Cao, Chaoyu Chen, Dajun Chen, Hongwei Chen, Liang Chen, Gang Fan, Jie Gong, Zi Gong, Wen Hu, Tingting Guo, Zhichao Lei, Ting Li, Zheng Li, Ming Liang, Cong Liao, Bingchang Liu, Jiachen Liu, Zhiwei Liu, Shaojun Lu, Min Shen, Guangpei Wang, Huan Wang, Zhi Wang, Zhaogui Xu, Jiawei Yang, Qing Ye, Gehao Zhang, Yu Zhang, Zelin Zhao, Xunjin Zheng, Hailian Zhou, Lifu Zhu, Xianying Zhu

Figure 1 for CodeFuse-13B: A Pretrained Multi-lingual Code Large Language Model
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Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs) have gained significant attention in the industry due to their wide applications in the full lifecycle of software engineering. However, the effectiveness of existing models in understanding non-English inputs for multi-lingual code-related tasks is still far from well studied. This paper introduces CodeFuse-13B, an open-sourced pre-trained code LLM. It is specifically designed for code-related tasks with both English and Chinese prompts and supports over 40 programming languages. CodeFuse achieves its effectiveness by utilizing a high quality pre-training dataset that is carefully filtered by program analyzers and optimized during the training process. Extensive experiments are conducted using real-world usage scenarios, the industry-standard benchmark HumanEval-x, and the specially designed CodeFuseEval for Chinese prompts. To assess the effectiveness of CodeFuse, we actively collected valuable human feedback from the AntGroup's software development process where CodeFuse has been successfully deployed. The results demonstrate that CodeFuse-13B achieves a HumanEval pass@1 score of 37.10%, positioning it as one of the top multi-lingual code LLMs with similar parameter sizes. In practical scenarios, such as code generation, code translation, code comments, and testcase generation, CodeFuse performs better than other models when confronted with Chinese prompts.

* 10 pages with 2 pages for references 
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Unsupervised Skin Lesion Segmentation via Structural Entropy Minimization on Multi-Scale Superpixel Graphs

Sep 05, 2023
Guangjie Zeng, Hao Peng, Angsheng Li, Zhiwei Liu, Chunyang Liu, Philip S. Yu, Lifang He

Figure 1 for Unsupervised Skin Lesion Segmentation via Structural Entropy Minimization on Multi-Scale Superpixel Graphs
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Skin lesion segmentation is a fundamental task in dermoscopic image analysis. The complex features of pixels in the lesion region impede the lesion segmentation accuracy, and existing deep learning-based methods often lack interpretability to this problem. In this work, we propose a novel unsupervised Skin Lesion sEgmentation framework based on structural entropy and isolation forest outlier Detection, namely SLED. Specifically, skin lesions are segmented by minimizing the structural entropy of a superpixel graph constructed from the dermoscopic image. Then, we characterize the consistency of healthy skin features and devise a novel multi-scale segmentation mechanism by outlier detection, which enhances the segmentation accuracy by leveraging the superpixel features from multiple scales. We conduct experiments on four skin lesion benchmarks and compare SLED with nine representative unsupervised segmentation methods. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed framework. Additionally, some case studies are analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of SLED.

* 10 pages, 8 figures, conference. Accepted by IEEE ICDM 2023 
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Graph-based Alignment and Uniformity for Recommendation

Aug 18, 2023
Liangwei Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Chen Wang, Mingdai Yang, Xiaolong Liu, Jing Ma, Philip S. Yu

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Collaborative filtering-based recommender systems (RecSys) rely on learning representations for users and items to predict preferences accurately. Representation learning on the hypersphere is a promising approach due to its desirable properties, such as alignment and uniformity. However, the sparsity issue arises when it encounters RecSys. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach, graph-based alignment and uniformity (GraphAU), that explicitly considers high-order connectivities in the user-item bipartite graph. GraphAU aligns the user/item embedding to the dense vector representations of high-order neighbors using a neighborhood aggregator, eliminating the need to compute the burdensome alignment to high-order neighborhoods individually. To address the discrepancy in alignment losses, GraphAU includes a layer-wise alignment pooling module to integrate alignment losses layer-wise. Experiments on four datasets show that GraphAU significantly alleviates the sparsity issue and achieves state-of-the-art performance. We open-source GraphAU at

* 4 pages 
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