Large Language Models (LLM) have revolutionized Natural Language Processing (NLP), improving state-of-the-art on many existing tasks and exhibiting emergent capabilities. However, LLMs have not yet been successfully applied on semi-structured document information extraction, which is at the core of many document processing workflows and consists of extracting key entities from a visually rich document (VRD) given a predefined target schema. The main obstacles to LLM adoption in that task have been the absence of layout encoding within LLMs, critical for a high quality extraction, and the lack of a grounding mechanism ensuring the answer is not hallucinated. In this paper, we introduce Language Model-based Document Information Extraction and Localization (LMDX), a methodology to adapt arbitrary LLMs for document information extraction. LMDX can do extraction of singular, repeated, and hierarchical entities, both with and without training data, while providing grounding guarantees and localizing the entities within the document. In particular, we apply LMDX to the PaLM 2-S LLM and evaluate it on VRDU and CORD benchmarks, setting a new state-of-the-art and showing how LMDX enables the creation of high quality, data-efficient parsers.
In conventional supervised deep learning based channel estimation algorithms, a large number of training samples are required for offline training. However, in practical communication systems, it is difficult to obtain channel samples for every signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, the generalization ability of these deep neural networks (DNN) is typically poor. In this work, we propose a one-shot self-supervised learning framework for channel estimation in multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. The required number of samples for offline training is small and our approach can be directly deployed to adapt to variable channels. Our framework consists of a traditional channel estimation module and a denoising module. The denoising module is designed based on the one-shot learning method Self2Self and employs Bernoulli sampling to generate training labels. Besides,we further utilize a blind spot strategy and dropout technique to avoid overfitting. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed one-shot self-supervised learning method is very close to the supervised learning approach while obtaining improved generalization ability for different channel environments.
The techniques for 3D indoor scene capturing are widely used, but the meshes produced leave much to be desired. In this paper, we propose "RoomDreamer", which leverages powerful natural language to synthesize a new room with a different style. Unlike existing image synthesis methods, our work addresses the challenge of synthesizing both geometry and texture aligned to the input scene structure and prompt simultaneously. The key insight is that a scene should be treated as a whole, taking into account both scene texture and geometry. The proposed framework consists of two significant components: Geometry Guided Diffusion and Mesh Optimization. Geometry Guided Diffusion for 3D Scene guarantees the consistency of the scene style by applying the 2D prior to the entire scene simultaneously. Mesh Optimization improves the geometry and texture jointly and eliminates the artifacts in the scanned scene. To validate the proposed method, real indoor scenes scanned with smartphones are used for extensive experiments, through which the effectiveness of our method is demonstrated.
In massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, hybrid analog-digital beamforming is an essential technique for exploiting the potential array gain without using a dedicated radio frequency chain for each antenna. However, due to the large number of antennas, the conventional channel estimation and hybrid beamforming algorithms generally require high computational complexity and signaling overhead. In this work, we propose an end-to-end deep-unfolding neural network (NN) joint channel estimation and hybrid beamforming (JCEHB) algorithm to maximize the system sum rate in time-division duplex (TDD) massive MIMO. Specifically, the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm and stochastic successive convex approximation (SSCA) algorithm are unfolded for channel estimation and hybrid beamforming, respectively. In order to reduce the signaling overhead, we consider a mixed-timescale hybrid beamforming scheme, where the analog beamforming matrices are optimized based on the channel state information (CSI) statistics offline, while the digital beamforming matrices are designed at each time slot based on the estimated low-dimensional equivalent CSI matrices. We jointly train the analog beamformers together with the trainable parameters of the RLS and SSCA induced deep-unfolding NNs based on the CSI statistics offline. During data transmission, we estimate the low-dimensional equivalent CSI by the RLS induced deep-unfolding NN and update the digital beamformers. In addition, we propose a mixed-timescale deep-unfolding NN where the analog beamformers are optimized online, and extend the framework to frequency-division duplex (FDD) systems where channel feedback is considered. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly outperform conventional algorithms with reduced computational complexity and signaling overhead.
A class or taxonomic hierarchy is often manually constructed, and part of our knowledge about the world. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for automatically acquiring a class hierarchy from a classifier which is often a large neural network these days. The information that we need from a classifier is its confusion matrix which contains, for each pair of base classes, the number of errors the classifier makes by mistaking one for another. Our algorithm produces surprisingly good hierarchies for some well-known deep neural network models trained on the CIFAR-10 dataset, a neural network model for predicting the native language of a non-native English speaker, a neural network model for detecting the language of a written text, and a classifier for identifying music genre. In the literature, such class hierarchies have been used to provide interpretability to the neural networks. We also discuss some other potential uses of the acquired hierarchies.
In this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep learning-based joint transceiver design algorithm for millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, which consists of deep neural network (DNN)-aided pilot training, channel feedback, and hybrid analog-digital (HAD) precoding. Specifically, we develop a DNN architecture that maps the received pilots into feedback bits at the receiver, and then further maps the feedback bits into the hybrid precoder at the transmitter. To reduce the signaling overhead and channel state information (CSI) mismatch caused by the transmission delay, a two-timescale DNN composed of a long-term DNN and a short-term DNN is developed. The analog precoders are designed by the long-term DNN based on the CSI statistics and updated once in a frame consisting of a number of time slots. In contrast, the digital precoders are optimized by the short-term DNN at each time slot based on the estimated low-dimensional equivalent CSI matrices. A two-timescale training method is also developed for the proposed DNN with a binary layer. We then analyze the generalization ability and signaling overhead for the proposed DNN based algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed technique significantly outperforms conventional schemes in terms of bit-error rate performance with reduced signaling overhead and shorter pilot sequences.
In connectomics, scientists create the wiring diagram of a mammalian brain by identifying synaptic connections between neurons in nano-scale electron microscopy images. This allows for the identification of dysfunctional mitochondria which are linked to a variety of diseases such as autism or bipolar. However, manual analysis is not feasible since connectomics datasets can be petabytes in size. To process such large data, we present a fully automatic mitochondria detector based on a modified U-Net architecture that yields high accuracy and fast processing times. We evaluate our method on multiple real-world connectomics datasets, including an improved version of the EPFL Hippocampus mitochondria detection benchmark. Our results show a Jaccard index of up to 0.90 with inference speeds lower than 16ms for a 512x512 image tile. This speed is faster than the acquisition time of modern electron microscopes, allowing mitochondria detection in real-time. Compared to previous work, our detector ranks first among real-time methods and third overall. Our data, results, and code are freely available.
The state-of-the-art performance for object detection has been significantly improved over the past two years. Besides the introduction of powerful deep neural networks such as GoogleNet and VGG, novel object detection frameworks such as R-CNN and its successors, Fast R-CNN and Faster R-CNN, play an essential role in improving the state-of-the-art. Despite their effectiveness on still images, those frameworks are not specifically designed for object detection from videos. Temporal and contextual information of videos are not fully investigated and utilized. In this work, we propose a deep learning framework that incorporates temporal and contextual information from tubelets obtained in videos, which dramatically improves the baseline performance of existing still-image detection frameworks when they are applied to videos. It is called T-CNN, i.e. tubelets with convolutional neueral networks. The proposed framework won the recently introduced object-detection-from-video (VID) task with provided data in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2015 (ILSVRC2015).
Object detection in videos has drawn increasing attention recently with the introduction of the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset. Different from object detection in static images, temporal information in videos is vital for object detection. To fully utilize temporal information, state-of-the-art methods are based on spatiotemporal tubelets, which are essentially sequences of associated bounding boxes across time. However, the existing methods have major limitations in generating tubelets in terms of quality and efficiency. Motion-based methods are able to obtain dense tubelets efficiently, but the lengths are generally only several frames, which is not optimal for incorporating long-term temporal information. Appearance-based methods, usually involving generic object tracking, could generate long tubelets, but are usually computationally expensive. In this work, we propose a framework for object detection in videos, which consists of a novel tubelet proposal network to efficiently generate spatiotemporal proposals, and a Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) network that incorporates temporal information from tubelet proposals for achieving high object detection accuracy in videos. Experiments on the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework for object detection in videos.
Deep Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown impressive performance in various vision tasks such as image classification, object detection and semantic segmentation. For object detection, particularly in still images, the performance has been significantly increased last year thanks to powerful deep networks (e.g. GoogleNet) and detection frameworks (e.g. Regions with CNN features (R-CNN)). The lately introduced ImageNet task on object detection from video (VID) brings the object detection task into the video domain, in which objects' locations at each frame are required to be annotated with bounding boxes. In this work, we introduce a complete framework for the VID task based on still-image object detection and general object tracking. Their relations and contributions in the VID task are thoroughly studied and evaluated. In addition, a temporal convolution network is proposed to incorporate temporal information to regularize the detection results and shows its effectiveness for the task.