Traditionally, large language models have been either trained on general web crawls or domain-specific data. However, recent successes of generative large language models, have shed light on the benefits of cross-domain datasets. To examine the significance of prioritizing data diversity over quality, we present a German dataset comprising texts from five domains, along with another dataset aimed at containing high-quality data. Through training a series of models ranging between 122M and 750M parameters on both datasets, we conduct a comprehensive benchmark on multiple downstream tasks. Our findings demonstrate that the models trained on the cross-domain dataset outperform those trained on quality data alone, leading to improvements up to $4.45\%$ over the previous state-of-the-art. The models are available at https://huggingface.co/ikim-uk-essen
Objective To develop soft prompt-based learning algorithms for large language models (LLMs), examine the shape of prompts, prompt-tuning using frozen/unfrozen LLMs, transfer learning, and few-shot learning abilities. Methods We developed a soft prompt-based LLM model and compared 4 training strategies including (1) fine-tuning without prompts; (2) hard-prompt with unfrozen LLMs; (3) soft-prompt with unfrozen LLMs; and (4) soft-prompt with frozen LLMs. We evaluated 7 pretrained LLMs using the 4 training strategies for clinical concept and relation extraction on two benchmark datasets. We evaluated the transfer learning ability of the prompt-based learning algorithms in a cross-institution setting. We also assessed the few-shot learning ability. Results and Conclusion When LLMs are unfrozen, GatorTron-3.9B with soft prompting achieves the best strict F1-scores of 0.9118 and 0.8604 for concept extraction, outperforming the traditional fine-tuning and hard prompt-based models by 0.6~3.1% and 1.2~2.9%, respectively; GatorTron-345M with soft prompting achieves the best F1-scores of 0.8332 and 0.7488 for end-to-end relation extraction, outperforming the other two models by 0.2~2% and 0.6~11.7%, respectively. When LLMs are frozen, small (i.e., 345 million parameters) LLMs have a big gap to be competitive with unfrozen models; scaling LLMs up to billions of parameters makes frozen LLMs competitive with unfrozen LLMs. For cross-institute evaluation, soft prompting with a frozen GatorTron-8.9B model achieved the best performance. This study demonstrates that (1) machines can learn soft prompts better than humans, (2) frozen LLMs have better few-shot learning ability and transfer learning ability to facilitate muti-institution applications, and (3) frozen LLMs require large models.
We present a joint Speech and Language Model (SLM), a multitask, multilingual, and dual-modal model that takes advantage of pretrained foundational speech and language models. SLM freezes the pretrained foundation models to maximally preserves their capabilities, and only trains a simple adapter with just 1\% (156M) of the foundation models' parameters. This adaptation not only leads SLM to achieve strong performance on conventional tasks such as speech recognition (ASR) and speech translation (AST), but also introduces the novel capability of zero-shot instruction-following for more diverse tasks: given a speech input and a text instruction, SLM is able to perform unseen generation tasks including contextual biasing ASR using real-time context, dialog generation, speech continuation, and question answering, etc. Our approach demonstrates that the representational gap between pretrained speech and language models might be narrower than one would expect, and can be bridged by a simple adaptation mechanism. As a result, SLM is not only efficient to train, but also inherits strong capabilities already acquired in foundation models of different modalities.
Large pre-trained speech models are widely used as the de-facto paradigm, especially in scenarios when there is a limited amount of labeled data available. However, finetuning all parameters from the self-supervised learned model can be computationally expensive, and becomes infeasiable as the size of the model and the number of downstream tasks scales. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Two Parallel Adapter (TPA) that is inserted into the conformer-based model pre-trained model instead. TPA is based on systematic studies of the residual adapter, a popular approach for finetuning a subset of parameters. We evaluate TPA on various public benchmarks and experiment results demonstrates its superior performance, which is close to the full finetuning on different datasets and speech tasks. These results show that TPA is an effective and efficient approach for serving large pre-trained speech models. Ablation studies show that TPA can also be pruned, especially for lower blocks.
There is enormous enthusiasm and concerns in using large language models (LLMs) in healthcare, yet current assumptions are all based on general-purpose LLMs such as ChatGPT. This study develops a clinical generative LLM, GatorTronGPT, using 277 billion words of mixed clinical and English text with a GPT-3 architecture of 20 billion parameters. GatorTronGPT improves biomedical natural language processing for medical research. Synthetic NLP models trained using GatorTronGPT generated text outperform NLP models trained using real-world clinical text. Physicians Turing test using 1 (worst) to 9 (best) scale shows that there is no significant difference in linguistic readability (p = 0.22; 6.57 of GatorTronGPT compared with 6.93 of human) and clinical relevance (p = 0.91; 7.0 of GatorTronGPT compared with 6.97 of human) and that physicians cannot differentiate them (p < 0.001). This study provides insights on the opportunities and challenges of LLMs for medical research and healthcare.
We introduce PaLM 2, a new state-of-the-art language model that has better multilingual and reasoning capabilities and is more compute-efficient than its predecessor PaLM. PaLM 2 is a Transformer-based model trained using a mixture of objectives. Through extensive evaluations on English and multilingual language, and reasoning tasks, we demonstrate that PaLM 2 has significantly improved quality on downstream tasks across different model sizes, while simultaneously exhibiting faster and more efficient inference compared to PaLM. This improved efficiency enables broader deployment while also allowing the model to respond faster, for a more natural pace of interaction. PaLM 2 demonstrates robust reasoning capabilities exemplified by large improvements over PaLM on BIG-Bench and other reasoning tasks. PaLM 2 exhibits stable performance on a suite of responsible AI evaluations, and enables inference-time control over toxicity without additional overhead or impact on other capabilities. Overall, PaLM 2 achieves state-of-the-art performance across a diverse set of tasks and capabilities. When discussing the PaLM 2 family, it is important to distinguish between pre-trained models (of various sizes), fine-tuned variants of these models, and the user-facing products that use these models. In particular, user-facing products typically include additional pre- and post-processing steps. Additionally, the underlying models may evolve over time. Therefore, one should not expect the performance of user-facing products to exactly match the results reported in this report.
The ultrasound characteristics of thyroid nodules guide the evaluation of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules. However, the characteristics of thyroid nodules are often documented in clinical narratives such as ultrasound reports. Previous studies have examined natural language processing (NLP) methods in extracting a limited number of characteristics (<9) using rule-based NLP systems. In this study, a multidisciplinary team of NLP experts and thyroid specialists, identified thyroid nodule characteristics that are important for clinical care, composed annotation guidelines, developed a corpus, and compared 5 state-of-the-art transformer-based NLP methods, including BERT, RoBERTa, LongFormer, DeBERTa, and GatorTron, for extraction of thyroid nodule characteristics from ultrasound reports. Our GatorTron model, a transformer-based large language model trained using over 90 billion words of text, achieved the best strict and lenient F1-score of 0.8851 and 0.9495 for the extraction of a total number of 16 thyroid nodule characteristics, and 0.9321 for linking characteristics to nodules, outperforming other clinical transformer models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically categorize and apply transformer-based NLP models to extract a large number of clinical relevant thyroid nodule characteristics from ultrasound reports. This study lays ground for assessing the documentation quality of thyroid ultrasound reports and examining outcomes of patients with thyroid nodules using electronic health records.
Delirium is an acute decline or fluctuation in attention, awareness, or other cognitive function that can lead to serious adverse outcomes. Despite the severe outcomes, delirium is frequently unrecognized and uncoded in patients' electronic health records (EHRs) due to its transient and diverse nature. Natural language processing (NLP), a key technology that extracts medical concepts from clinical narratives, has shown great potential in studies of delirium outcomes and symptoms. To assist in the diagnosis and phenotyping of delirium, we formed an expert panel to categorize diverse delirium symptoms, composed annotation guidelines, created a delirium corpus with diverse delirium symptoms, and developed NLP methods to extract delirium symptoms from clinical notes. We compared 5 state-of-the-art transformer models including 2 models (BERT and RoBERTa) from the general domain and 3 models (BERT_MIMIC, RoBERTa_MIMIC, and GatorTron) from the clinical domain. GatorTron achieved the best strict and lenient F1 scores of 0.8055 and 0.8759, respectively. We conducted an error analysis to identify challenges in annotating delirium symptoms and developing NLP systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large language model-based delirium symptom extraction system. Our study lays the foundation for the future development of computable phenotypes and diagnosis methods for delirium.
Assessing the aesthetics of an image is challenging, as it is influenced by multiple factors including composition, color, style, and high-level semantics. Existing image aesthetic assessment (IAA) methods primarily rely on human-labeled rating scores, which oversimplify the visual aesthetic information that humans perceive. Conversely, user comments offer more comprehensive information and are a more natural way to express human opinions and preferences regarding image aesthetics. In light of this, we propose learning image aesthetics from user comments, and exploring vision-language pretraining methods to learn multimodal aesthetic representations. Specifically, we pretrain an image-text encoder-decoder model with image-comment pairs, using contrastive and generative objectives to learn rich and generic aesthetic semantics without human labels. To efficiently adapt the pretrained model for downstream IAA tasks, we further propose a lightweight rank-based adapter that employs text as an anchor to learn the aesthetic ranking concept. Our results show that our pretrained aesthetic vision-language model outperforms prior works on image aesthetic captioning over the AVA-Captions dataset, and it has powerful zero-shot capability for aesthetic tasks such as zero-shot style classification and zero-shot IAA, surpassing many supervised baselines. With only minimal finetuning parameters using the proposed adapter module, our model achieves state-of-the-art IAA performance over the AVA dataset.