Deploying multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to locate a signal-emitting source covers a wide range of military and civilian applications like rescue and target tracking. It is well known that the UAVs-source (sensors-target) geometry, namely geometric configuration, significantly affects the final localization accuracy. This paper focuses on the geometric configuration optimization for received signal strength difference (RSSD)-based passive source localization by drone swarm. Different from prior works, this paper considers a general measuring condition where the spread angle of drone swarm centered on the source is constrained. Subject to this constraint, a geometric configuration optimization problem with the aim of maximizing the determinant of Fisher information matrix (FIM) is formulated. After transforming this problem using matrix theory, an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based optimization framework is proposed. To solve the subproblems in this framework, two global optimal solutions based on the Von Neumann matrix trace inequality theorem and majorize-minimize (MM) algorithm are proposed respectively. Finally, the effectiveness as well as the practicality of the proposed ADMM-based optimization algorithm are demonstrated by extensive simulations.
Learning with rejection is an important framework that can refrain from making predictions to avoid critical mispredictions by balancing between prediction and rejection. Previous studies on cost-based rejection only focused on the classification setting, which cannot handle the continuous and infinite target space in the regression setting. In this paper, we investigate a novel regression problem called regression with cost-based rejection, where the model can reject to make predictions on some examples given certain rejection costs. To solve this problem, we first formulate the expected risk for this problem and then derive the Bayes optimal solution, which shows that the optimal model should reject to make predictions on the examples whose variance is larger than the rejection cost when the mean squared error is used as the evaluation metric. Furthermore, we propose to train the model by a surrogate loss function that considers rejection as binary classification and we provide conditions for the model consistency, which implies that the Bayes optimal solution can be recovered by our proposed surrogate loss. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
In this paper, we introduce SCALE, a collaborative framework that connects compact Specialized Translation Models (STMs) and general-purpose Large Language Models (LLMs) as one unified translation engine. By introducing translation from STM into the triplet in-context demonstrations, SCALE unlocks refinement and pivoting ability of LLM, thus mitigating language bias of LLM and parallel data bias of STM, enhancing LLM speciality without sacrificing generality, and facilitating continual learning without expensive LLM fine-tuning. Our comprehensive experiments show that SCALE significantly outperforms both few-shot LLMs (GPT-4) and specialized models (NLLB) in challenging low-resource settings. Moreover, in Xhosa to English translation, SCALE experiences consistent improvement by a 4 BLEURT score without tuning LLM and surpasses few-shot GPT-4 by 2.5 COMET score and 3.8 BLEURT score when equipped with a compact model consisting of merely 600M parameters. SCALE could also effectively exploit the existing language bias of LLMs by using an English-centric STM as a pivot for translation between any language pairs, outperforming few-shot GPT-4 by an average of 6 COMET points across eight translation directions. Furthermore we provide an in-depth analysis of SCALE's robustness, translation characteristics, and latency costs, providing solid foundation for future studies exploring the potential synergy between LLMs and more specialized, task-specific models.
This paper investigates an interesting weakly supervised regression setting called regression with interval targets (RIT). Although some of the previous methods on relevant regression settings can be adapted to RIT, they are not statistically consistent, and thus their empirical performance is not guaranteed. In this paper, we provide a thorough study on RIT. First, we proposed a novel statistical model to describe the data generation process for RIT and demonstrate its validity. Second, we analyze a simple selection method for RIT, which selects a particular value in the interval as the target value to train the model. Third, we propose a statistically consistent limiting method for RIT to train the model by limiting the predictions to the interval. We further derive an estimation error bound for our limiting method. Finally, extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Partial-label learning is a popular weakly supervised learning setting that allows each training example to be annotated with a set of candidate labels. Previous studies on partial-label learning only focused on the classification setting where candidate labels are all discrete, which cannot handle continuous labels with real values. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to investigate partial-label regression, where each training example is annotated with a set of real-valued candidate labels. To solve this problem, we first propose a simple baseline method that takes the average loss incurred by candidate labels as the predictive loss. The drawback of this method lies in that the loss incurred by the true label may be overwhelmed by other false labels. To overcome this drawback, we propose an identification method that takes the least loss incurred by candidate labels as the predictive loss. We further improve it by proposing a progressive identification method to differentiate candidate labels using progressively updated weights for incurred losses. We prove that the latter two methods are model-consistent and provide convergence analyses. Our proposed methods are theoretically grounded and can be compatible with any models, optimizers, and losses. Experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed methods.
Transformers have revolutionized almost all natural language processing (NLP) tasks but suffer from memory and computational complexity that scales quadratically with sequence length. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) exhibit linear scaling in memory and computational requirements but struggle to match the same performance as Transformers due to limitations in parallelization and scalability. We propose a novel model architecture, Receptance Weighted Key Value (RWKV), that combines the efficient parallelizable training of Transformers with the efficient inference of RNNs. Our approach leverages a linear attention mechanism and allows us to formulate the model as either a Transformer or an RNN, which parallelizes computations during training and maintains constant computational and memory complexity during inference, leading to the first non-transformer architecture to be scaled to tens of billions of parameters. Our experiments reveal that RWKV performs on par with similarly sized Transformers, suggesting that future work can leverage this architecture to create more efficient models. This work presents a significant step towards reconciling the trade-offs between computational efficiency and model performance in sequence processing tasks.
Pre-trained language models(PLM) have made impressive results in various NLP tasks. It has been revealed that one of the key factors to their success is the parameters of these models implicitly learn all kinds of knowledge during pre-training. However, encoding knowledge implicitly in the model parameters has two fundamental drawbacks. First, the knowledge is neither editable nor scalable once the model is trained, which is especially problematic in that knowledge is consistently evolving. Second, it lacks interpretability and prevents humans from understanding which knowledge PLM requires for a certain problem. In this paper, we introduce PlugLM, a pre-training model with differentiable plug-in memory(DPM). The key intuition is to decouple the knowledge storage from model parameters with an editable and scalable key-value memory and leverage knowledge in an explainable manner by knowledge retrieval in the DPM. To justify this design choice, we conduct evaluations in three settings including: (1) domain adaptation. PlugLM obtains 3.95 F1 improvements across four domains on average without any in-domain pre-training. (2) knowledge update. PlugLM could absorb new knowledge in a training-free way after pre-training is done. (3) in-task knowledge learning. PlugLM could be further improved by incorporating training samples into DPM with knowledge prompting.
Automatic summarization plays an important role in the exponential document growth on the Web. On content websites such as CNN.com and WikiHow.com, there often exist various kinds of side information along with the main document for attention attraction and easier understanding, such as videos, images, and queries. Such information can be used for better summarization, as they often explicitly or implicitly mention the essence of the article. However, most of the existing side-aware summarization methods are designed to incorporate either single-modal or multi-modal side information, and cannot effectively adapt to each other. In this paper, we propose a general summarization framework, which can flexibly incorporate various modalities of side information. The main challenges in designing a flexible summarization model with side information include: (1) the side information can be in textual or visual format, and the model needs to align and unify it with the document into the same semantic space, (2) the side inputs can contain information from various aspects, and the model should recognize the aspects useful for summarization. To address these two challenges, we first propose a unified topic encoder, which jointly discovers latent topics from the document and various kinds of side information. The learned topics flexibly bridge and guide the information flow between multiple inputs in a graph encoder through a topic-aware interaction. We secondly propose a triplet contrastive learning mechanism to align the single-modal or multi-modal information into a unified semantic space, where the summary quality is enhanced by better understanding the document and side information. Results show that our model significantly surpasses strong baselines on three public single-modal or multi-modal benchmark summarization datasets.
With direct access to human-written reference as memory, retrieval-augmented generation has achieved much progress in a wide range of text generation tasks. Since better memory would typically prompt better generation~(we define this as primal problem), previous works mainly focus on how to retrieve better memory. However, one fundamental limitation exists for current literature: the memory is retrieved from a fixed corpus and is bounded by the quality of the corpus. Due to the finite retrieval space, bounded memory would greatly limit the potential of the memory-augmented generation model. In this paper, by exploring the duality of the primal problem: better generation also prompts better memory, we propose a framework called Selfmem, which iteratively adopts a retrieval-augmented generator itself to generate an unbounded memory pool and uses a memory selector to pick one generated memory for the next generation round. By combining the primal and dual problem, a retrieval-augmented generation model could lift itself up with its own output in the infinite generation space. To verify our framework, we conduct extensive experiments across various text generation scenarios including neural machine translation, abstractive summarization and dialogue generation over seven datasets and achieve state-of-the-art results in JRC-Acquis(four directions), XSum(50.3 ROUGE-1) and BigPatent(62.9 ROUGE-1).
Review summarization is a non-trivial task that aims to summarize the main idea of the product review in the E-commerce website. Different from the document summary which only needs to focus on the main facts described in the document, review summarization should not only summarize the main aspects mentioned in the review but also reflect the personal style of the review author. Although existing review summarization methods have incorporated the historical reviews of both customer and product, they usually simply concatenate and indiscriminately model this two heterogeneous information into a long sequence. Moreover, the rating information can also provide a high-level abstraction of customer preference, it has not been used by the majority of methods. In this paper, we propose the Heterogeneous Historical Review aware Review Summarization Model (HHRRS) which separately models the two types of historical reviews with the rating information by a graph reasoning module with a contrastive loss. We employ a multi-task framework that conducts the review sentiment classification and summarization jointly. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of HHRRS on both tasks.