LLMs have transformed NLP and shown promise in various fields, yet their potential in finance is underexplored due to a lack of thorough evaluations and the complexity of financial tasks. This along with the rapid development of LLMs, highlights the urgent need for a systematic financial evaluation benchmark for LLMs. In this paper, we introduce FinBen, the first comprehensive open-sourced evaluation benchmark, specifically designed to thoroughly assess the capabilities of LLMs in the financial domain. FinBen encompasses 35 datasets across 23 financial tasks, organized into three spectrums of difficulty inspired by the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory, to evaluate LLMs' cognitive abilities in inductive reasoning, associative memory, quantitative reasoning, crystallized intelligence, and more. Our evaluation of 15 representative LLMs, including GPT-4, ChatGPT, and the latest Gemini, reveals insights into their strengths and limitations within the financial domain. The findings indicate that GPT-4 leads in quantification, extraction, numerical reasoning, and stock trading, while Gemini shines in generation and forecasting; however, both struggle with complex extraction and forecasting, showing a clear need for targeted enhancements. Instruction tuning boosts simple task performance but falls short in improving complex reasoning and forecasting abilities. FinBen seeks to continuously evaluate LLMs in finance, fostering AI development with regular updates of tasks and models.
Sentiment analysis and emotion detection are important research topics in natural language processing (NLP) and benefit many downstream tasks. With the widespread application of LLMs, researchers have started exploring the application of LLMs based on instruction-tuning in the field of sentiment analysis. However, these models only focus on single aspects of affective classification tasks (e.g. sentimental polarity or categorical emotions), and overlook the regression tasks (e.g. sentiment strength or emotion intensity), which leads to poor performance in downstream tasks. The main reason is the lack of comprehensive affective instruction tuning datasets and evaluation benchmarks, which cover various affective classification and regression tasks. Moreover, although emotional information is useful for downstream tasks, existing downstream datasets lack high-quality and comprehensive affective annotations. In this paper, we propose EmoLLMs, the first series of open-sourced instruction-following LLMs for comprehensive affective analysis based on fine-tuning various LLMs with instruction data, the first multi-task affective analysis instruction dataset (AAID) with 234K data samples based on various classification and regression tasks to support LLM instruction tuning, and a comprehensive affective evaluation benchmark (AEB) with 14 tasks from various sources and domains to test the generalization ability of LLMs. We propose a series of EmoLLMs by fine-tuning LLMs with AAID to solve various affective instruction tasks. We compare our model with a variety of LLMs on AEB, where our models outperform all other open-sourced LLMs, and surpass ChatGPT and GPT-4 in most tasks, which shows that the series of EmoLLMs achieve the ChatGPT-level and GPT-4-level generalization capabilities on affective analysis tasks, and demonstrates our models can be used as affective annotation tools.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have become valuable assets in mental health, showing promise in both classification tasks and counseling applications. This paper offers a perspective on using LLMs in mental health applications. It discusses the instability of generative models for prediction and the potential for generating hallucinatory outputs, underscoring the need for ongoing audits and evaluations to maintain their reliability and dependability. The paper also distinguishes between the often interchangeable terms ``explainability'' and ``interpretability'', advocating for developing inherently interpretable methods instead of relying on potentially hallucinated self-explanations generated by LLMs. Despite the advancements in LLMs, human counselors' empathetic understanding, nuanced interpretation, and contextual awareness remain irreplaceable in the sensitive and complex realm of mental health counseling. The use of LLMs should be approached with a judicious and considerate mindset, viewing them as tools that complement human expertise rather than seeking to replace it.
With the advent of social media, an increasing number of netizens are sharing and reading posts and news online. However, the huge volumes of misinformation (e.g., fake news and rumors) that flood the internet can adversely affect people's lives, and have resulted in the emergence of rumor and fake news detection as a hot research topic. The emotions and sentiments of netizens, as expressed in social media posts and news, constitute important factors that can help to distinguish fake news from genuine news and to understand the spread of rumors. This article comprehensively reviews emotion-based methods for misinformation detection. We begin by explaining the strong links between emotions and misinformation. We subsequently provide a detailed analysis of a range of misinformation detection methods that employ a variety of emotion, sentiment and stance-based features, and describe their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we discuss a number of ongoing challenges in emotion-based misinformation detection based on large language models and suggest future research directions, including data collection (multi-platform, multilingual), annotation, benchmark, multimodality, and interpretability.
With the development of web technology, social media texts are becoming a rich source for automatic mental health analysis. As traditional discriminative methods bear the problem of low interpretability, the recent large language models have been explored for interpretable mental health analysis on social media, which aims to provide detailed explanations along with predictions. The results show that ChatGPT can generate approaching-human explanations for its correct classifications. However, LLMs still achieve unsatisfactory classification performance in a zero-shot/few-shot manner. Domain-specific finetuning is an effective solution, but faces 2 challenges: 1) lack of high-quality training data. 2) no open-source LLMs for interpretable mental health analysis were released to lower the finetuning cost. To alleviate these problems, we build the first multi-task and multi-source interpretable mental health instruction (IMHI) dataset on social media, with 105K data samples. The raw social media data are collected from 10 existing sources covering 8 mental health analysis tasks. We use expert-written few-shot prompts and collected labels to prompt ChatGPT and obtain explanations from its responses. To ensure the reliability of the explanations, we perform strict automatic and human evaluations on the correctness, consistency, and quality of generated data. Based on the IMHI dataset and LLaMA2 foundation models, we train MentalLLaMA, the first open-source LLM series for interpretable mental health analysis with instruction-following capability. We also evaluate the performance of MentalLLaMA on the IMHI evaluation benchmark with 10 test sets, where their correctness for making predictions and the quality of explanations are examined. The results show that MentalLLaMA approaches state-of-the-art discriminative methods in correctness and generates high-quality explanations.
The context-aware emotional reasoning ability of AI systems, especially in conversations, is of vital importance in applications such as online opinion mining from social media and empathetic dialogue systems. Due to the implicit nature of conveying emotions in many scenarios, commonsense knowledge is widely utilized to enrich utterance semantics and enhance conversation modeling. However, most previous knowledge infusion methods perform empirical knowledge filtering and design highly customized architectures for knowledge interaction with the utterances, which can discard useful knowledge aspects and limit their generalizability to different knowledge sources. Based on these observations, we propose a Bipartite Heterogeneous Graph (BHG) method for enhancing emotional reasoning with commonsense knowledge. In BHG, the extracted context-aware utterance representations and knowledge representations are modeled as heterogeneous nodes. Two more knowledge aggregation node types are proposed to perform automatic knowledge filtering and interaction. BHG-based knowledge infusion can be directly generalized to multi-type and multi-grained knowledge sources. In addition, we propose a Multi-dimensional Heterogeneous Graph Transformer (MHGT) to perform graph reasoning, which can retain unchanged feature spaces and unequal dimensions for heterogeneous node types during inference to prevent unnecessary loss of information. Experiments show that BHG-based methods significantly outperform state-of-the-art knowledge infusion methods and show generalized knowledge infusion ability with higher efficiency. Further analysis proves that previous empirical knowledge filtering methods do not guarantee to provide the most useful knowledge information. Our code is available at: https://github.com/SteveKGYang/BHG.
Exactly estimating and tracking the motion of surrounding dynamic objects is one of important tasks for the autonomy of a quadruped manipulator. However, with only an onboard RGB camera, it is still a challenging work for a quadruped manipulator to track the motion of a dynamic object moving with unknown and changing velocities. To address this problem, this manuscript proposes a novel image-based visual servoing (IBVS) approach consisting of three elements: a spherical projection model, a robust super-twisting observer, and a model predictive controller (MPC). The spherical projection model decouples the visual error of the dynamic target into linear and angular ones. Then, with the presence of the visual error, the robustness of the observer is exploited to estimate the unknown and changing velocities of the dynamic target without depth estimation. Finally, the estimated velocity is fed into the model predictive controller (MPC) to generate joint torques for the quadruped manipulator to track the motion of the dynamical target. The proposed approach is validated through hardware experiments and the experimental results illustrate the approach's effectiveness in improving the autonomy of the quadruped manipulator.
In Emotion Recognition in Conversations (ERC), the emotions of target utterances are closely dependent on their context. Therefore, existing works train the model to generate the response of the target utterance, which aims to recognise emotions leveraging contextual information. However, adjacent response generation ignores long-range dependencies and provides limited affective information in many cases. In addition, most ERC models learn a unified distributed representation for each utterance, which lacks interpretability and robustness. To address these issues, we propose a VAD-disentangled Variational AutoEncoder (VAD-VAE), which first introduces a target utterance reconstruction task based on Variational Autoencoder, then disentangles three affect representations Valence-Arousal-Dominance (VAD) from the latent space. We also enhance the disentangled representations by introducing VAD supervision signals from a sentiment lexicon and minimising the mutual information between VAD distributions. Experiments show that VAD-VAE outperforms the state-of-the-art model on two datasets. Further analysis proves the effectiveness of each proposed module and the quality of disentangled VAD representations. The code is available at https://github.com/SteveKGYang/VAD-VAE.
* Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
Pretrained language models have been used in various natural language processing applications. In the mental health domain, domain-specific language models are pretrained and released, which facilitates the early detection of mental health conditions. Social posts, e.g., on Reddit, are usually long documents. However, there are no domain-specific pretrained models for long-sequence modeling in the mental health domain. This paper conducts domain-specific continued pretraining to capture the long context for mental health. Specifically, we train and release MentalXLNet and MentalLongformer based on XLNet and Longformer. We evaluate the mental health classification performance and the long-range ability of these two domain-specific pretrained models. Our models are released in HuggingFace.
Mental illnesses are one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide, which negatively influence people's lives and society's health. With the increasing popularity of social media, there has been a growing research interest in the early detection of mental illness by analysing user-generated posts on social media. According to the correlation between emotions and mental illness, leveraging and fusing emotion information has developed into a valuable research topic. In this article, we provide a comprehensive survey of approaches to mental illness detection in social media that incorporate emotion fusion. We begin by reviewing different fusion strategies, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Subsequently, we discuss the major challenges faced by researchers working in this area, including issues surrounding the availability and quality of datasets, the performance of algorithms and interpretability. We additionally suggest some potential directions for future research.
* Information Fusion 92 (2023) 231-246 * Accepted manuscript