The process of estimating and counting tree density using only a single aerial or satellite image is a difficult task in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, it plays a crucial role in the management of forests. The huge variety of trees in varied topography severely hinders tree counting models to perform well. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework that is learnt from the source domain with sufficient labeled trees and is adapted to the target domain with only a limited number of labeled trees. Our method, termed as AdaTreeFormer, contains one shared encoder with a hierarchical feature extraction scheme to extract robust features from the source and target domains. It also consists of three subnets: two for extracting self-domain attention maps from source and target domains respectively and one for extracting cross-domain attention maps. For the latter, an attention-to-adapt mechanism is introduced to distill relevant information from different domains while generating tree density maps; a hierarchical cross-domain feature alignment scheme is proposed that progressively aligns the features from the source and target domains. We also adopt adversarial learning into the framework to further reduce the gap between source and target domains. Our AdaTreeFormer is evaluated on six designed domain adaptation tasks using three tree counting datasets, ie Jiangsu, Yosemite, and London; and outperforms the state of the art methods significantly.
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has revolutionized many procedures and led to reduced recovery time and risk of patient injury. However, MIS poses additional complexity and burden on surgical teams. Data-driven surgical vision algorithms are thought to be key building blocks in the development of future MIS systems with improved autonomy. Recent advancements in machine learning and computer vision have led to successful applications in analyzing videos obtained from MIS with the promise of alleviating challenges in MIS videos. Surgical scene and action understanding encompasses multiple related tasks that, when solved individually, can be memory-intensive, inefficient, and fail to capture task relationships. Multitask learning (MTL), a learning paradigm that leverages information from multiple related tasks to improve performance and aid generalization, is wellsuited for fine-grained and high-level understanding of MIS data. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art MTL systems that leverage videos obtained from MIS. Beyond listing published approaches, we discuss the benefits and limitations of these MTL systems. Moreover, this manuscript presents an analysis of the literature for various application fields of MTL in MIS, including those with large models, highlighting notable trends, new directions of research, and developments.
Detecting objects in low-light scenarios presents a persistent challenge, as detectors trained on well-lit data exhibit significant performance degradation on low-light data due to the low visibility. Previous methods mitigate this issue by investigating image enhancement or object detection techniques using low-light image datasets. However, the progress is impeded by the inherent difficulties associated with collecting and annotating low-light images. To address this challenge, we propose to boost low-light object detection with zero-shot day-night domain adaptation, which aims to generalize a detector from well-lit scenarios to low-light ones without requiring real low-light data. We first design a reflectance representation learning module to learn Retinex-based illumination invariance in images with a carefully designed illumination invariance reinforcement strategy. Next, an interchange-redecomposition-coherence procedure is introduced to improve over the vanilla Retinex image decomposition process by performing two sequential image decompositions and introducing a redecomposition cohering loss. Extensive experiments on ExDark, DARK FACE and CODaN datasets show strong low-light generalizability of our method.
Panoptic Scene Graph Generation (PSG) aims at achieving a comprehensive image understanding by simultaneously segmenting objects and predicting relations among objects. However, the long-tail problem among relations leads to unsatisfactory results in real-world applications. Prior methods predominantly rely on vision information or utilize limited language information, such as object or relation names, thereby overlooking the utility of language information. Leveraging the recent progress in Large Language Models (LLMs), we propose to use language information to assist relation prediction, particularly for rare relations. To this end, we propose the Vision-Language Prompting (VLPrompt) model, which acquires vision information from images and language information from LLMs. Then, through a prompter network based on attention mechanism, it achieves precise relation prediction. Our extensive experiments show that VLPrompt significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on the PSG dataset, proving the effectiveness of incorporating language information and alleviating the long-tail problem of relations.
In the field of medical Vision-Language Pre-training (VLP), significant efforts have been devoted to deriving text and image features from both clinical reports and associated medical images. However, most existing methods may have overlooked the opportunity in leveraging the inherent hierarchical structure of clinical reports, which are generally split into `findings' for descriptive content and `impressions' for conclusive observation. Instead of utilizing this rich, structured format, current medical VLP approaches often simplify the report into either a unified entity or fragmented tokens. In this work, we propose a novel clinical prior guided VLP framework named IMITATE to learn the structure information from medical reports with hierarchical vision-language alignment. The framework derives multi-level visual features from the chest X-ray (CXR) images and separately aligns these features with the descriptive and the conclusive text encoded in the hierarchical medical report. Furthermore, a new clinical-informed contrastive loss is introduced for cross-modal learning, which accounts for clinical prior knowledge in formulating sample correlations in contrastive learning. The proposed model, IMITATE, outperforms baseline VLP methods across six different datasets, spanning five medical imaging downstream tasks. Comprehensive experimental results highlight the advantages of integrating the hierarchical structure of medical reports for vision-language alignment.
In medical imaging, artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used to automate routine tasks. However, these algorithms can exhibit and exacerbate biases which lead to disparate performances between protected groups. We investigate the impact of model choice on how imbalances in subject sex and race in training datasets affect AI-based cine cardiac magnetic resonance image segmentation. We evaluate three convolutional neural network-based models and one vision transformer model. We find significant sex bias in three of the four models and racial bias in all of the models. However, the severity and nature of the bias varies between the models, highlighting the importance of model choice when attempting to train fair AI-based segmentation models for medical imaging tasks.
Surgical instrument segmentation is recognised as a key enabler to provide advanced surgical assistance and improve computer assisted interventions. In this work, we propose SegMatch, a semi supervised learning method to reduce the need for expensive annotation for laparoscopic and robotic surgical images. SegMatch builds on FixMatch, a widespread semi supervised classification pipeline combining consistency regularization and pseudo labelling, and adapts it for the purpose of segmentation. In our proposed SegMatch, the unlabelled images are weakly augmented and fed into the segmentation model to generate a pseudo-label to enforce the unsupervised loss against the output of the model for the adversarial augmented image on the pixels with a high confidence score. Our adaptation for segmentation tasks includes carefully considering the equivariance and invariance properties of the augmentation functions we rely on. To increase the relevance of our augmentations, we depart from using only handcrafted augmentations and introduce a trainable adversarial augmentation strategy. Our algorithm was evaluated on the MICCAI Instrument Segmentation Challenge datasets Robust-MIS 2019 and EndoVis 2017. Our results demonstrate that adding unlabelled data for training purposes allows us to surpass the performance of fully supervised approaches which are limited by the availability of training data in these challenges. SegMatch also outperforms a range of state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning semantic segmentation models in different labelled to unlabelled data ratios.
Multi-Task Learning (MTL) aims to learn multiple tasks simultaneously while exploiting their mutual relationships. By using shared resources to simultaneously calculate multiple outputs, this learning paradigm has the potential to have lower memory requirements and inference times compared to the traditional approach of using separate methods for each task. Previous work in MTL has mainly focused on fully-supervised methods, as task relationships can not only be leveraged to lower the level of data-dependency of those methods but they can also improve performance. However, MTL introduces a set of challenges due to a complex optimisation scheme and a higher labeling requirement. This review focuses on how MTL could be utilised under different partial supervision settings to address these challenges. First, this review analyses how MTL traditionally uses different parameter sharing techniques to transfer knowledge in between tasks. Second, it presents the different challenges arising from such a multi-objective optimisation scheme. Third, it introduces how task groupings can be achieved by analysing task relationships. Fourth, it focuses on how partially supervised methods applied to MTL can tackle the aforementioned challenges. Lastly, this review presents the available datasets, tools and benchmarking results of such methods.
Automatic tree density estimation and counting using single aerial and satellite images is a challenging task in photogrammetry and remote sensing, yet has an important role in forest management. In this paper, we propose the first semisupervised transformer-based framework for tree counting which reduces the expensive tree annotations for remote sensing images. Our method, termed as TreeFormer, first develops a pyramid tree representation module based on transformer blocks to extract multi-scale features during the encoding stage. Contextual attention-based feature fusion and tree density regressor modules are further designed to utilize the robust features from the encoder to estimate tree density maps in the decoder. Moreover, we propose a pyramid learning strategy that includes local tree density consistency and local tree count ranking losses to utilize unlabeled images into the training process. Finally, the tree counter token is introduced to regulate the network by computing the global tree counts for both labeled and unlabeled images. Our model was evaluated on two benchmark tree counting datasets, Jiangsu, and Yosemite, as well as a new dataset, KCL-London, created by ourselves. Our TreeFormer outperforms the state of the art semi-supervised methods under the same setting and exceeds the fully-supervised methods using the same number of labeled images. The codes and datasets are available at https://github.com/HAAClassic/TreeFormer.
* Accepted in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
In this paper, we propose a novel text promptable surgical instrument segmentation approach to overcome challenges associated with diversity and differentiation of surgical instruments in minimally invasive surgeries. We redefine the task as text promptable, thereby enabling a more nuanced comprehension of surgical instruments and adaptability to new instrument types. Inspired by recent advancements in vision-language models, we leverage pretrained image and text encoders as our model backbone and design a text promptable mask decoder consisting of attention- and convolution-based prompting schemes for surgical instrument segmentation prediction. Our model leverages multiple text prompts for each surgical instrument through a new mixture of prompts mechanism, resulting in enhanced segmentation performance. Additionally, we introduce a hard instrument area reinforcement module to improve image feature comprehension and segmentation precision. Extensive experiments on EndoVis2017 and EndoVis2018 datasets demonstrate our model's superior performance and promising generalization capability. To our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a promptable approach to surgical instrument segmentation, offering significant potential for practical application in the field of robotic-assisted surgery.