Understanding time is a pivotal aspect of human cognition, crucial in the broader framework of grasping the intricacies of the world. Previous studies typically focus on specific aspects of time, lacking a comprehensive temporal reasoning benchmark. To address this issue, we propose TimeBench, a comprehensive hierarchical temporal reasoning benchmark that covers a broad spectrum of temporal reasoning phenomena, which provides a thorough evaluation for investigating the temporal reasoning capabilities of large language models. We conduct extensive experiments on popular LLMs, such as GPT-4, LLaMA2, and Mistral, incorporating chain-of-thought prompting. Our experimental results indicate a significant performance gap between the state-of-the-art LLMs and humans, highlighting that there is still a considerable distance to cover in temporal reasoning. We aspire for TimeBench to serve as a comprehensive benchmark, fostering research in temporal reasoning for LLMs. Our resource is available at https://github.com/zchuz/TimeBench
Large language models (LLMs) exhibit superior performance on various natural language tasks, but they are susceptible to issues stemming from outdated data and domain-specific limitations. In order to address these challenges, researchers have pursued two primary strategies, knowledge editing and retrieval augmentation, to enhance LLMs by incorporating external information from different aspects. Nevertheless, there is still a notable absence of a comprehensive survey. In this paper, we propose a review to discuss the trends in integration of knowledge and large language models, including taxonomy of methods, benchmarks, and applications. In addition, we conduct an in-depth analysis of different methods and point out potential research directions in the future. We hope this survey offers the community quick access and a comprehensive overview of this research area, with the intention of inspiring future research endeavors.
The emergence of large language models (LLMs) has marked a significant breakthrough in natural language processing (NLP), leading to remarkable advancements in text understanding and generation. Nevertheless, alongside these strides, LLMs exhibit a critical tendency to produce hallucinations, resulting in content that is inconsistent with real-world facts or user inputs. This phenomenon poses substantial challenges to their practical deployment and raises concerns over the reliability of LLMs in real-world scenarios, which attracts increasing attention to detect and mitigate these hallucinations. In this survey, we aim to provide a thorough and in-depth overview of recent advances in the field of LLM hallucinations. We begin with an innovative taxonomy of LLM hallucinations, then delve into the factors contributing to hallucinations. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive overview of hallucination detection methods and benchmarks. Additionally, representative approaches designed to mitigate hallucinations are introduced accordingly. Finally, we analyze the challenges that highlight the current limitations and formulate open questions, aiming to delineate pathways for future research on hallucinations in LLMs.
The facts and time in the document are intricately intertwined, making temporal reasoning over documents challenging. Previous work models time implicitly, making it difficult to handle such complex relationships. To address this issue, we propose MTGER, a novel Multi-view Temporal Graph Enhanced Temporal Reasoning framework for temporal reasoning over time-involved documents. Concretely, MTGER explicitly models the temporal relationships among facts by multi-view temporal graphs. On the one hand, the heterogeneous temporal graphs explicitly model the temporal and discourse relationships among facts; on the other hand, the multi-view mechanism captures both time-focused and fact-focused information, allowing the two views to complement each other through adaptive fusion. To further improve the implicit reasoning capability of the model, we design a self-supervised time-comparing objective. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the TimeQA and SituatedQA datasets. Furthermore, MTGER gives more consistent answers under question perturbations.
In this paper, we evaluate different abilities of GPT-4V including visual understanding, language understanding, visual puzzle solving, and understanding of other modalities such as depth, thermal, video, and audio. To estimate GPT-4V's performance, we manually construct 656 test instances and carefully evaluate the results of GPT-4V. The highlights of our findings are as follows: (1) GPT-4V exhibits impressive performance on English visual-centric benchmarks but fails to recognize simple Chinese texts in the images; (2) GPT-4V shows inconsistent refusal behavior when answering questions related to sensitive traits such as gender, race, and age; (3) GPT-4V obtains worse results than GPT-4 (API) on language understanding tasks including general language understanding benchmarks and visual commonsense knowledge evaluation benchmarks; (4) Few-shot prompting can improve GPT-4V's performance on both visual understanding and language understanding; (5) GPT-4V struggles to find the nuances between two similar images and solve the easy math picture puzzles; (6) GPT-4V shows non-trivial performance on the tasks of similar modalities to image, such as video and thermal. Our experimental results reveal the ability and limitations of GPT-4V and we hope our paper can provide some insights into the application and research of GPT-4V.
Explaining black-box model behavior with natural language has achieved impressive results in various NLP tasks. Recent research has explored the utilization of subsequences from the input text as a rationale, providing users with evidence to support the model decision. Although existing frameworks excel in generating high-quality rationales while achieving high task performance, they neglect to account for the unreliable link between the generated rationale and model decision. In simpler terms, a model may make correct decisions while attributing wrong rationales, or make poor decisions while attributing correct rationales. To mitigate this issue, we propose a unified two-stage framework known as Self-Attribution and Decision-Making (SADM). Through extensive experiments on five reasoning datasets from the ERASER benchmark, we demonstrate that our framework not only establishes a more reliable link between the generated rationale and model decision but also achieves competitive results in task performance and the quality of rationale. Furthermore, we explore the potential of our framework in semi-supervised scenarios.
Large language models augmented with task-relevant documents have demonstrated impressive performance on knowledge-intensive tasks. However, regarding how to obtain effective documents, the existing methods are mainly divided into two categories. One is to retrieve from an external knowledge base, and the other is to utilize large language models to generate documents. We propose an iterative retrieval-generation collaborative framework. It is not only able to leverage both parametric and non-parametric knowledge, but also helps to find the correct reasoning path through retrieval-generation interactions, which is very important for tasks that require multi-step reasoning. We conduct experiments on four question answering datasets, including single-hop QA and multi-hop QA tasks. Empirical results show that our method significantly improves the reasoning ability of large language models and outperforms previous baselines.
Chain-of-thought reasoning, a cognitive process fundamental to human intelligence, has garnered significant attention in the realm of artificial intelligence and natural language processing. However, there still remains a lack of a comprehensive survey for this arena. To this end, we take the first step and present a thorough survey of this research field carefully and widely. We use X-of-Thought to refer to Chain-of-Thought in a broad sense. In detail, we systematically organize the current research according to the taxonomies of methods, including XoT construction, XoT structure variants, and enhanced XoT. Additionally, we describe XoT with frontier applications, covering planning, tool use, and distillation. Furthermore, we address challenges and discuss some future directions, including faithfulness, multi-modal, and theory. We hope this survey serves as a valuable resource for researchers seeking to innovate within the domain of chain-of-thought reasoning.
The application of Large Language Models (LLMs) to the medical domain has stimulated the interest of researchers. Recent studies have focused on constructing Instruction Fine-Tuning (IFT) data through medical knowledge graphs to enrich the interactive medical knowledge of LLMs. However, the medical literature serving as a rich source of medical knowledge remains unexplored. Our work introduces the CALLA dataset to probe LLMs' interactive knowledge acquisition from Chinese medical literature. It assesses the proficiency of LLMs in mastering medical knowledge through a free-dialogue fact-checking task. We identify a phenomenon called the ``fact-following response``, where LLMs tend to affirm facts mentioned in questions and display a reluctance to challenge them. To eliminate the inaccurate evaluation caused by this phenomenon, for the golden fact, we artificially construct test data from two perspectives: one consistent with the fact and one inconsistent with the fact. Drawing from the probing experiment on the CALLA dataset, we conclude that IFT data highly correlated with the medical literature corpus serves as a potent catalyst for LLMs, enabling themselves to skillfully employ the medical knowledge acquired during the pre-training phase within interactive scenarios, enhancing accuracy. Furthermore, we design a framework for automatically constructing IFT data based on medical literature and discuss some real-world applications.
Molecule discovery serves as a cornerstone in numerous scientific domains, fueling the development of new materials and innovative drug designs. Recent developments of in-silico molecule discovery have highlighted the promising results of cross-modal techniques, which bridge molecular structures with their descriptive annotations. However, these cross-modal methods frequently encounter the issue of data scarcity, hampering their performance and application. In this paper, we address the low-resource challenge by utilizing artificially-real data generated by Large Language Models (LLMs). We first introduce a retrieval-based prompting strategy to construct high-quality pseudo data, then explore the optimal method to effectively leverage this pseudo data. Experiments show that using pseudo data for domain adaptation outperforms all existing methods, while also requiring a smaller model scale, reduced data size and lower training cost, highlighting its efficiency. Furthermore, our method shows a sustained improvement as the volume of pseudo data increases, revealing the great potential of pseudo data in advancing low-resource cross-modal molecule discovery.