The advancement of large language models (LLMs) has significantly propelled the field of code generation. Previous work integrated reinforcement learning (RL) with compiler feedback for exploring the output space of LLMs to enhance code generation quality. However, the lengthy code generated by LLMs in response to complex human requirements makes RL exploration a challenge. Also, since the unit tests may not cover the complicated code, optimizing LLMs by using these unexecuted code snippets is ineffective. To tackle these challenges, we introduce StepCoder, a novel RL framework for code generation, consisting of two main components: CCCS addresses the exploration challenge by breaking the long sequences code generation task into a Curriculum of Code Completion Subtasks, while FGO only optimizes the model by masking the unexecuted code segments to provide Fine-Grained Optimization. In addition, we furthermore construct the APPS+ dataset for RL training, which is manually verified to ensure the correctness of unit tests. Experimental results show that our method improves the ability to explore the output space and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in corresponding benchmarks. Our dataset APPS+ and StepCoder are available online.
Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) has become a crucial technology for aligning language models with human values and intentions, enabling models to produce more helpful and harmless responses. Reward models are trained as proxies for human preferences to drive reinforcement learning optimization. While reward models are often considered central to achieving high performance, they face the following challenges in practical applications: (1) Incorrect and ambiguous preference pairs in the dataset may hinder the reward model from accurately capturing human intent. (2) Reward models trained on data from a specific distribution often struggle to generalize to examples outside that distribution and are not suitable for iterative RLHF training. In this report, we attempt to address these two issues. (1) From a data perspective, we propose a method to measure the strength of preferences within the data, based on a voting mechanism of multiple reward models. Experimental results confirm that data with varying preference strengths have different impacts on reward model performance. We introduce a series of novel methods to mitigate the influence of incorrect and ambiguous preferences in the dataset and fully leverage high-quality preference data. (2) From an algorithmic standpoint, we introduce contrastive learning to enhance the ability of reward models to distinguish between chosen and rejected responses, thereby improving model generalization. Furthermore, we employ meta-learning to enable the reward model to maintain the ability to differentiate subtle differences in out-of-distribution samples, and this approach can be utilized for iterative RLHF optimization.
Supervised fine-tuning (SFT) is a crucial step for large language models (LLMs), enabling them to align with human instructions and enhance their capabilities in downstream tasks. When the models are required to align with a broader range of downstream tasks, or there is a desire to notably improve the performance on a specific task, a substantial increase in fine-tuning data often emerges as the solution. However, we find that large-scale increases in instruction data can disrupt the world knowledge previously stored in the LLMs, i.e., world knowledge forgetting. In this paper, we introduce LoRAMoE to address the above challenge. The LoRAMoE is a plugin version of Mixture of Experts (MoE). The plugin form ensures the integrity of world knowledge by freezing the backbone model during the training phase. We then propose the use of localized balancing constraints to coordinate parts of experts for task utilization, meanwhile enabling other experts to fully leverage the world knowledge stored in the models. Experimental results demonstrate that LoRAMoE can reasonably coordinate experts based on data type during inference, and even dramatically increasing instruction data does not result in knowledge forgetting. Moreover, LoRAMoE provides additional benefits for the performance of downstream tasks, indicating the potential of our approach for multi-task learning.
Reports of human-like behaviors in foundation models are growing, with psychological theories providing enduring tools to investigate these behaviors. However, current research tends to directly apply these human-oriented tools without verifying the faithfulness of their outcomes. In this paper, we introduce a framework, RealBehavior, which is designed to characterize the humanoid behaviors of models faithfully. Beyond simply measuring behaviors, our framework assesses the faithfulness of results based on reproducibility, internal and external consistency, and generalizability. Our findings suggest that a simple application of psychological tools cannot faithfully characterize all human-like behaviors. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of aligning models with human and social values, arguing for the necessity of diversifying alignment objectives to prevent the creation of models with restricted characteristics.
For a long time, humanity has pursued artificial intelligence (AI) equivalent to or surpassing the human level, with AI agents considered a promising vehicle for this pursuit. AI agents are artificial entities that sense their environment, make decisions, and take actions. Many efforts have been made to develop intelligent agents, but they mainly focus on advancement in algorithms or training strategies to enhance specific capabilities or performance on particular tasks. Actually, what the community lacks is a general and powerful model to serve as a starting point for designing AI agents that can adapt to diverse scenarios. Due to the versatile capabilities they demonstrate, large language models (LLMs) are regarded as potential sparks for Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), offering hope for building general AI agents. Many researchers have leveraged LLMs as the foundation to build AI agents and have achieved significant progress. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive survey on LLM-based agents. We start by tracing the concept of agents from its philosophical origins to its development in AI, and explain why LLMs are suitable foundations for agents. Building upon this, we present a general framework for LLM-based agents, comprising three main components: brain, perception, and action, and the framework can be tailored for different applications. Subsequently, we explore the extensive applications of LLM-based agents in three aspects: single-agent scenarios, multi-agent scenarios, and human-agent cooperation. Following this, we delve into agent societies, exploring the behavior and personality of LLM-based agents, the social phenomena that emerge from an agent society, and the insights they offer for human society. Finally, we discuss several key topics and open problems within the field. A repository for the related papers at https://github.com/WooooDyy/LLM-Agent-Paper-List.
Optical flow estimation is a fundamental task in computer vision. Recent direct-regression methods using deep neural networks achieve remarkable performance improvement. However, they do not explicitly capture long-term motion correspondences and thus cannot handle large motions effectively. In this paper, inspired by the traditional matching-optimization methods where matching is introduced to handle large displacements before energy-based optimizations, we introduce a simple but effective global matching step before the direct regression and develop a learning-based matching-optimization framework, namely GMFlowNet. In GMFlowNet, global matching is efficiently calculated by applying argmax on 4D cost volumes. Additionally, to improve the matching quality, we propose patch-based overlapping attention to extract large context features. Extensive experiments demonstrate that GMFlowNet outperforms RAFT, the most popular optimization-only method, by a large margin and achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks. Thanks to the matching and overlapping attention, GMFlowNet obtains major improvements on the predictions for textureless regions and large motions. Our code is made publicly available at https://github.com/xiaofeng94/GMFlowNet
Stereo matching is an important problem in computer vision which has drawn tremendous research attention for decades. Recent years, data-driven methods with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are continuously pushing stereo matching to new heights. However, data-driven methods require large amount of training data, which is not an easy task for real stereo data due to the annotation difficulties of per-pixel ground-truth disparity. Though synthetic dataset is proposed to fill the gaps of large data demand, the fine-tuning on real dataset is still needed due to the domain variances between synthetic data and real data. In this paper, we found that in synthetic datasets, close-to-real-scene texture rendering is a key factor to boost up stereo matching performance, while close-to-real-scene 3D modeling is less important. We then propose semi-synthetic, an effective and fast way to synthesize large amount of data with close-to-real-scene texture to minimize the gap between synthetic data and real data. Extensive experiments demonstrate that models trained with our proposed semi-synthetic datasets achieve significantly better performance than with general synthetic datasets, especially on real data benchmarks with limited training data. With further fine-tuning on the real dataset, we also achieve SOTA performance on Middlebury and competitive results on KITTI and ETH3D datasets.