Large-scale text-to-image models enable a wide range of image editing techniques, using text prompts or even spatial controls. However, applying these editing methods to multi-view images depicting a single scene leads to 3D-inconsistent results. In this work, we focus on spatial control-based geometric manipulations and introduce a method to consolidate the editing process across various views. We build on two insights: (1) maintaining consistent features throughout the generative process helps attain consistency in multi-view editing, and (2) the queries in self-attention layers significantly influence the image structure. Hence, we propose to improve the geometric consistency of the edited images by enforcing the consistency of the queries. To do so, we introduce QNeRF, a neural radiance field trained on the internal query features of the edited images. Once trained, QNeRF can render 3D-consistent queries, which are then softly injected back into the self-attention layers during generation, greatly improving multi-view consistency. We refine the process through a progressive, iterative method that better consolidates queries across the diffusion timesteps. We compare our method to a range of existing techniques and demonstrate that it can achieve better multi-view consistency and higher fidelity to the input scene. These advantages allow us to train NeRFs with fewer visual artifacts, that are better aligned with the target geometry.
Prior robot painting and drawing work, such as FRIDA, has focused on decreasing the sim-to-real gap and expanding input modalities for users, but the interaction with these systems generally exists only in the input stages. To support interactive, human-robot collaborative painting, we introduce the Collaborative FRIDA (CoFRIDA) robot painting framework, which can co-paint by modifying and engaging with content already painted by a human collaborator. To improve text-image alignment, FRIDA's major weakness, our system uses pre-trained text-to-image models; however, pre-trained models in the context of real-world co-painting do not perform well because they (1) do not understand the constraints and abilities of the robot and (2) cannot perform co-painting without making unrealistic edits to the canvas and overwriting content. We propose a self-supervised fine-tuning procedure that can tackle both issues, allowing the use of pre-trained state-of-the-art text-image alignment models with robots to enable co-painting in the physical world. Our open-source approach, CoFRIDA, creates paintings and drawings that match the input text prompt more clearly than FRIDA, both from a blank canvas and one with human created work. More generally, our fine-tuning procedure successfully encodes the robot's constraints and abilities into a foundation model, showcasing promising results as an effective method for reducing sim-to-real gaps.
Manually creating textures for 3D meshes is time-consuming, even for expert visual content creators. We propose a fast approach for automatically texturing an input 3D mesh based on a user-provided text prompt. Importantly, our approach disentangles lighting from surface material/reflectance in the resulting texture so that the mesh can be properly relit and rendered in any lighting environment. We introduce LightControlNet, a new text-to-image model based on the ControlNet architecture, which allows the specification of the desired lighting as a conditioning image to the model. Our text-to-texture pipeline then constructs the texture in two stages. The first stage produces a sparse set of visually consistent reference views of the mesh using LightControlNet. The second stage applies a texture optimization based on Score Distillation Sampling (SDS) that works with LightControlNet to increase the texture quality while disentangling surface material from lighting. Our pipeline is significantly faster than previous text-to-texture methods, while producing high-quality and relightable textures.
The stunning qualitative improvement of recent text-to-image models has led to their widespread attention and adoption. However, we lack a comprehensive quantitative understanding of their capabilities and risks. To fill this gap, we introduce a new benchmark, Holistic Evaluation of Text-to-Image Models (HEIM). Whereas previous evaluations focus mostly on text-image alignment and image quality, we identify 12 aspects, including text-image alignment, image quality, aesthetics, originality, reasoning, knowledge, bias, toxicity, fairness, robustness, multilinguality, and efficiency. We curate 62 scenarios encompassing these aspects and evaluate 26 state-of-the-art text-to-image models on this benchmark. Our results reveal that no single model excels in all aspects, with different models demonstrating different strengths. We release the generated images and human evaluation results for full transparency at https://crfm.stanford.edu/heim/v1.1.0 and the code at https://github.com/stanford-crfm/helm, which is integrated with the HELM codebase.
* NeurIPS 2023. First three authors contributed equally
Existing text-to-image diffusion models struggle to synthesize realistic images given dense captions, where each text prompt provides a detailed description for a specific image region. To address this, we propose DenseDiffusion, a training-free method that adapts a pre-trained text-to-image model to handle such dense captions while offering control over the scene layout. We first analyze the relationship between generated images' layouts and the pre-trained model's intermediate attention maps. Next, we develop an attention modulation method that guides objects to appear in specific regions according to layout guidance. Without requiring additional fine-tuning or datasets, we improve image generation performance given dense captions regarding both automatic and human evaluation scores. In addition, we achieve similar-quality visual results with models specifically trained with layout conditions.
We introduce Text2Cinemagraph, a fully automated method for creating cinemagraphs from text descriptions - an especially challenging task when prompts feature imaginary elements and artistic styles, given the complexity of interpreting the semantics and motions of these images. Existing single-image animation methods fall short on artistic inputs, and recent text-based video methods frequently introduce temporal inconsistencies, struggling to keep certain regions static. To address these challenges, we propose an idea of synthesizing image twins from a single text prompt - a pair of an artistic image and its pixel-aligned corresponding natural-looking twin. While the artistic image depicts the style and appearance detailed in our text prompt, the realistic counterpart greatly simplifies layout and motion analysis. Leveraging existing natural image and video datasets, we can accurately segment the realistic image and predict plausible motion given the semantic information. The predicted motion can then be transferred to the artistic image to create the final cinemagraph. Our method outperforms existing approaches in creating cinemagraphs for natural landscapes as well as artistic and other-worldly scenes, as validated by automated metrics and user studies. Finally, we demonstrate two extensions: animating existing paintings and controlling motion directions using text.
While large text-to-image models are able to synthesize "novel" images, these images are necessarily a reflection of the training data. The problem of data attribution in such models -- which of the images in the training set are most responsible for the appearance of a given generated image -- is a difficult yet important one. As an initial step toward this problem, we evaluate attribution through "customization" methods, which tune an existing large-scale model toward a given exemplar object or style. Our key insight is that this allows us to efficiently create synthetic images that are computationally influenced by the exemplar by construction. With our new dataset of such exemplar-influenced images, we are able to evaluate various data attribution algorithms and different possible feature spaces. Furthermore, by training on our dataset, we can tune standard models, such as DINO, CLIP, and ViT, toward the attribution problem. Even though the procedure is tuned towards small exemplar sets, we show generalization to larger sets. Finally, by taking into account the inherent uncertainty of the problem, we can assign soft attribution scores over a set of training images.
Deep generative models have various content creation applications such as graphic design, e-commerce, and virtual Try-on. However, current works mainly focus on synthesizing realistic visual outputs, often ignoring other sensory modalities, such as touch, which limits physical interaction with users. In this work, we leverage deep generative models to create a multi-sensory experience where users can touch and see the synthesized object when sliding their fingers on a haptic surface. The main challenges lie in the significant scale discrepancy between vision and touch sensing and the lack of explicit mapping from touch sensing data to a haptic rendering device. To bridge this gap, we collect high-resolution tactile data with a GelSight sensor and create a new visuotactile clothing dataset. We then develop a conditional generative model that synthesizes both visual and tactile outputs from a single sketch. We evaluate our method regarding image quality and tactile rendering accuracy. Finally, we introduce a pipeline to render high-quality visual and tactile outputs on an electroadhesion-based haptic device for an immersive experience, allowing for challenging materials and editable sketch inputs.
Dataset Distillation aims to distill an entire dataset's knowledge into a few synthetic images. The idea is to synthesize a small number of synthetic data points that, when given to a learning algorithm as training data, result in a model approximating one trained on the original data. Despite recent progress in the field, existing dataset distillation methods fail to generalize to new architectures and scale to high-resolution datasets. To overcome the above issues, we propose to use the learned prior from pre-trained deep generative models to synthesize the distilled data. To achieve this, we present a new optimization algorithm that distills a large number of images into a few intermediate feature vectors in the generative model's latent space. Our method augments existing techniques, significantly improving cross-architecture generalization in all settings.
We explore the task of embodied view synthesis from monocular videos of deformable scenes. Given a minute-long RGBD video of people interacting with their pets, we render the scene from novel camera trajectories derived from in-scene motion of actors: (1) egocentric cameras that simulate the point of view of a target actor and (2) 3rd-person cameras that follow the actor. Building such a system requires reconstructing the root-body and articulated motion of each actor in the scene, as well as a scene representation that supports free-viewpoint synthesis. Longer videos are more likely to capture the scene from diverse viewpoints (which helps reconstruction) but are also more likely to contain larger motions (which complicates reconstruction). To address these challenges, we present Total-Recon, the first method to photorealistically reconstruct deformable scenes from long monocular RGBD videos. Crucially, to scale to long videos, our method hierarchically decomposes the scene motion into the motion of each object, which itself is decomposed into global root-body motion and local articulations. To quantify such "in-the-wild" reconstruction and view synthesis, we collect ground-truth data from a specialized stereo RGBD capture rig for 11 challenging videos, significantly outperforming prior art. Code, videos, and data can be found at https://andrewsonga.github.io/totalrecon .