Text-to-motion diffusion models can generate realistic animations from text prompts, but do not support fine-grained motion editing controls. In this paper we present a method for using natural language to iteratively specify local edits to existing character animations, a task that is common in most computer animation workflows. Our key idea is to represent a space of motion edits using a set of kinematic motion operators that have well-defined semantics for how to modify specific frames of a target motion. We provide an algorithm that leverages pre-existing language models to translate textual descriptions of motion edits to sequences of motion editing operators (MEOs). Given new keyframes produced by the MEOs, we use diffusion-based keyframe interpolation to generate final motions. Through a user study and quantitative evaluation, we demonstrate that our system can perform motion edits that respect the animator's editing intent, remain faithful to the original animation (they edit the original animation, not dramatically change it), and yield realistic character animation results.
Object detection is integral to a bevy of real-world applications, from robotics to medical image analysis. To be used reliably in such applications, models must be capable of handling unexpected - or novel - objects. The open world object detection (OWD) paradigm addresses this challenge by enabling models to detect unknown objects and learn discovered ones incrementally. However, OWD method development is hindered due to the stringent benchmark and task definitions. These definitions effectively prohibit foundation models. Here, we aim to relax these definitions and investigate the utilization of pre-trained foundation models in OWD. First, we show that existing benchmarks are insufficient in evaluating methods that utilize foundation models, as even naive integration methods nearly saturate these benchmarks. This result motivated us to curate a new and challenging benchmark for these models. Therefore, we introduce a new benchmark that includes five real-world application-driven datasets, including challenging domains such as aerial and surgical images, and establish baselines. We exploit the inherent connection between classes in application-driven datasets and introduce a novel method, Foundation Object detection Model for the Open world, or FOMO, which identifies unknown objects based on their shared attributes with the base known objects. FOMO has ~3x unknown object mAP compared to baselines on our benchmark. However, our results indicate a significant place for improvement - suggesting a great research opportunity in further scaling object detection methods to real-world domains. Our code and benchmark are available at https://orrzohar.github.io/projects/fomo/.
Text-to-image diffusion models understand spatial relationship between objects, but do they represent the true 3D structure of the world from only 2D supervision? We demonstrate that yes, 3D knowledge is encoded in 2D image diffusion models like Stable Diffusion, and we show that this structure can be exploited for 3D vision tasks. Our method, Viewpoint Neural Textual Inversion (ViewNeTI), controls the 3D viewpoint of objects in generated images from frozen diffusion models. We train a small neural mapper to take camera viewpoint parameters and predict text encoder latents; the latents then condition the diffusion generation process to produce images with the desired camera viewpoint. ViewNeTI naturally addresses Novel View Synthesis (NVS). By leveraging the frozen diffusion model as a prior, we can solve NVS with very few input views; we can even do single-view novel view synthesis. Our single-view NVS predictions have good semantic details and photorealism compared to prior methods. Our approach is well suited for modeling the uncertainty inherent in sparse 3D vision problems because it can efficiently generate diverse samples. Our view-control mechanism is general, and can even change the camera view in images generated by user-defined prompts.
Neural fields, which represent signals as a function parameterized by a neural network, are a promising alternative to traditional discrete vector or grid-based representations. Compared to discrete representations, neural representations both scale well with increasing resolution, are continuous, and can be many-times differentiable. However, given a dataset of signals that we would like to represent, having to optimize a separate neural field for each signal is inefficient, and cannot capitalize on shared information or structures among signals. Existing generalization methods view this as a meta-learning problem and employ gradient-based meta-learning to learn an initialization which is then fine-tuned with test-time optimization, or learn hypernetworks to produce the weights of a neural field. We instead propose a new paradigm that views the large-scale training of neural representations as a part of a partially-observed neural process framework, and leverage neural process algorithms to solve this task. We demonstrate that this approach outperforms both state-of-the-art gradient-based meta-learning approaches and hypernetwork approaches.
Pre-trained multi-modal vision-language models (VLMs) are becoming increasingly popular due to their exceptional performance on downstream vision applications, particularly in the few- and zero-shot settings. However, selecting the best-performing VLM for some downstream applications is non-trivial, as it is dataset and task-dependent. Meanwhile, the exhaustive evaluation of all available VLMs on a novel application is not only time and computationally demanding but also necessitates the collection of a labeled dataset for evaluation. As the number of open-source VLM variants increases, there is a need for an efficient model selection strategy that does not require access to a curated evaluation dataset. This paper proposes a novel task and benchmark for efficiently evaluating VLMs' zero-shot performance on downstream applications without access to the downstream task dataset. Specifically, we introduce a new task LOVM: Language-Only Vision Model Selection, where methods are expected to perform both model selection and performance prediction based solely on a text description of the desired downstream application. We then introduced an extensive LOVM benchmark consisting of ground-truth evaluations of 35 pre-trained VLMs and 23 datasets, where methods are expected to rank the pre-trained VLMs and predict their zero-shot performance.
Recent multi-modal contrastive learning models have demonstrated the ability to learn an embedding space suitable for building strong vision classifiers, by leveraging the rich information in large-scale image-caption datasets. Our work highlights a distinct advantage of this multi-modal embedding space: the ability to diagnose vision classifiers through natural language. The traditional process of diagnosing model behaviors in deployment settings involves labor-intensive data acquisition and annotation. Our proposed method can discover high-error data slices, identify influential attributes and further rectify undesirable model behaviors, without requiring any visual data. Through a combination of theoretical explanation and empirical verification, we present conditions under which classifiers trained on embeddings from one modality can be equivalently applied to embeddings from another modality. On a range of image datasets with known error slices, we demonstrate that our method can effectively identify the error slices and influential attributes, and can further use language to rectify failure modes of the classifier.
The task of reconstructing 3D human motion has wideranging applications. The gold standard Motion capture (MoCap) systems are accurate but inaccessible to the general public due to their cost, hardware and space constraints. In contrast, monocular human mesh recovery (HMR) methods are much more accessible than MoCap as they take single-view videos as inputs. Replacing the multi-view Mo- Cap systems with a monocular HMR method would break the current barriers to collecting accurate 3D motion thus making exciting applications like motion analysis and motiondriven animation accessible to the general public. However, performance of existing HMR methods degrade when the video contains challenging and dynamic motion that is not in existing MoCap datasets used for training. This reduces its appeal as dynamic motion is frequently the target in 3D motion recovery in the aforementioned applications. Our study aims to bridge the gap between monocular HMR and multi-view MoCap systems by leveraging information shared across multiple video instances of the same action. We introduce the Neural Motion (NeMo) field. It is optimized to represent the underlying 3D motions across a set of videos of the same action. Empirically, we show that NeMo can recover 3D motion in sports using videos from the Penn Action dataset, where NeMo outperforms existing HMR methods in terms of 2D keypoint detection. To further validate NeMo using 3D metrics, we collected a small MoCap dataset mimicking actions in Penn Action,and show that NeMo achieves better 3D reconstruction compared to various baselines.
Open World Object Detection (OWOD) is a new and challenging computer vision task that bridges the gap between classic object detection (OD) benchmarks and object detection in the real world. In addition to detecting and classifying seen/labeled objects, OWOD algorithms are expected to detect novel/unknown objects - which can be classified and incrementally learned. In standard OD, object proposals not overlapping with a labeled object are automatically classified as background. Therefore, simply applying OD methods to OWOD fails as unknown objects would be predicted as background. The challenge of detecting unknown objects stems from the lack of supervision in distinguishing unknown objects and background object proposals. Previous OWOD methods have attempted to overcome this issue by generating supervision using pseudo-labeling - however, unknown object detection has remained low. Probabilistic/generative models may provide a solution for this challenge. Herein, we introduce a novel probabilistic framework for objectness estimation, where we alternate between probability distribution estimation and objectness likelihood maximization of known objects in the embedded feature space - ultimately allowing us to estimate the objectness probability of different proposals. The resulting Probabilistic Objectness transformer-based open-world detector, PROB, integrates our framework into traditional object detection models, adapting them for the open-world setting. Comprehensive experiments on OWOD benchmarks show that PROB outperforms all existing OWOD methods in both unknown object detection ($\sim 2\times$ unknown recall) and known object detection ($\sim 10\%$ mAP). Our code will be made available upon publication at https://github.com/orrzohar/PROB.
The ability to perceive 3D human bodies from a single image has a multitude of applications ranging from entertainment and robotics to neuroscience and healthcare. A fundamental challenge in human mesh recovery is in collecting the ground truth 3D mesh targets required for training, which requires burdensome motion capturing systems and is often limited to indoor laboratories. As a result, while progress is made on benchmark datasets collected in these restrictive settings, models fail to generalize to real-world ``in-the-wild'' scenarios due to distribution shifts. We propose Domain Adaptive 3D Pose Augmentation (DAPA), a data augmentation method that enhances the model's generalization ability in in-the-wild scenarios. DAPA combines the strength of methods based on synthetic datasets by getting direct supervision from the synthesized meshes, and domain adaptation methods by using ground truth 2D keypoints from the target dataset. We show quantitatively that finetuning with DAPA effectively improves results on benchmarks 3DPW and AGORA. We further demonstrate the utility of DAPA on a challenging dataset curated from videos of real-world parent-child interaction.
Large pretrained language models (LMs) like BERT have improved performance in many disparate natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, fine tuning such models requires a large number of training examples for each target task. Simultaneously, many realistic NLP problems are "few shot", without a sufficiently large training set. In this work, we propose a novel conditional neural process-based approach for few-shot text classification that learns to transfer from other diverse tasks with rich annotation. Our key idea is to represent each task using gradient information from a base model and to train an adaptation network that modulates a text classifier conditioned on the task representation. While previous task-aware few-shot learners represent tasks by input encoding, our novel task representation is more powerful, as the gradient captures input-output relationships of a task. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms traditional fine-tuning, sequential transfer learning, and state-of-the-art meta learning approaches on a collection of diverse few-shot tasks. We further conducted analysis and ablations to justify our design choices.