While the performance of cross-lingual TTS based on monolingual corpora has been significantly improved recently, generating cross-lingual speech still suffers from the foreign accent problem, leading to limited naturalness. Besides, current cross-lingual methods ignore modeling emotion, which is indispensable paralinguistic information in speech delivery. In this paper, we propose DiCLET-TTS, a Diffusion model based Cross-Lingual Emotion Transfer method that can transfer emotion from a source speaker to the intra- and cross-lingual target speakers. Specifically, to relieve the foreign accent problem while improving the emotion expressiveness, the terminal distribution of the forward diffusion process is parameterized into a speaker-irrelevant but emotion-related linguistic prior by a prior text encoder with the emotion embedding as a condition. To address the weaker emotional expressiveness problem caused by speaker disentanglement in emotion embedding, a novel orthogonal projection based emotion disentangling module (OP-EDM) is proposed to learn the speaker-irrelevant but emotion-discriminative embedding. Moreover, a condition-enhanced DPM decoder is introduced to strengthen the modeling ability of the speaker and the emotion in the reverse diffusion process to further improve emotion expressiveness in speech delivery. Cross-lingual emotion transfer experiments show the superiority of DiCLET-TTS over various competitive models and the good design of OP-EDM in learning speaker-irrelevant but emotion-discriminative embedding.
In current two-stage neural text-to-speech (TTS) paradigm, it is ideal to have a universal neural vocoder, once trained, which is robust to imperfect mel-spectrogram predicted from the acoustic model. To this end, we propose Robust MelGAN vocoder by solving the original multi-band MelGAN's metallic sound problem and increasing its generalization ability. Specifically, we introduce a fine-grained network dropout strategy to the generator. With a specifically designed over-smooth handler which separates speech signal intro periodic and aperiodic components, we only perform network dropout to the aperodic components, which alleviates metallic sounding and maintains good speaker similarity. To further improve generalization ability, we introduce several data augmentation methods to augment fake data in the discriminator, including harmonic shift, harmonic noise and phase noise. Experiments show that Robust MelGAN can be used as a universal vocoder, significantly improving sound quality in TTS systems built on various types of data.
Recent development of neural vocoders based on the generative adversarial neural network (GAN) has shown their advantages of generating raw waveform conditioned on mel-spectrogram with fast inference speed and lightweight networks. Whereas, it is still challenging to train a universal neural vocoder that can synthesize high-fidelity speech from various scenarios with unseen speakers, languages, and speaking styles. In this paper, we propose DSPGAN, a GAN-based universal vocoder for high-fidelity speech synthesis by applying the time-frequency domain supervision from digital signal processing (DSP). To eliminate the mismatch problem caused by the ground-truth spectrograms in training phase and the predicted spectrograms in inference phase, we leverage the mel-spectrogram extracted from the waveform generated by a DSP module, rather than the predicted mel-spectrogram from the Text-to-Speech (TTS) acoustic model, as the time-frequency domain supervision to the GAN-based vocoder. We also utilize sine excitation as the time-domain supervision to improve the harmonic modeling and eliminate various artifacts of the GAN-based vocoder. Experimental results show that DSPGAN significantly outperforms the compared approaches and can generate high-fidelity speech based on diverse data in TTS.
The zero-shot scenario for speech generation aims at synthesizing a novel unseen voice with only one utterance of the target speaker. Although the challenges of adapting new voices in zero-shot scenario exist in both stages -- acoustic modeling and vocoder, previous works usually consider the problem from only one stage. In this paper, we extend our previous Glow-WaveGAN to Glow-WaveGAN 2, aiming to solve the problem from both stages for high-quality zero-shot text-to-speech and any-to-any voice conversion. We first build a universal WaveGAN model for extracting latent distribution $p(z)$ of speech and reconstructing waveform from it. Then a flow-based acoustic model only needs to learn the same $p(z)$ from texts, which naturally avoids the mismatch between the acoustic model and the vocoder, resulting in high-quality generated speech without model fine-tuning. Based on a continuous speaker space and the reversible property of flows, the conditional distribution can be obtained for any speaker, and thus we can further conduct high-quality zero-shot speech generation for new speakers. We particularly investigate two methods to construct the speaker space, namely pre-trained speaker encoder and jointly-trained speaker encoder. The superiority of Glow-WaveGAN 2 has been proved through TTS and VC experiments conducted on LibriTTS corpus and VTCK corpus.
Speaker adaptation in text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) is to finetune a pre-trained TTS model to adapt to new target speakers with limited data. While much effort has been conducted towards this task, seldom work has been performed for low computational resource scenarios due to the challenges raised by the requirement of the lightweight model and less computational complexity. In this paper, a tiny VITS-based TTS model, named AdaVITS, for low computing resource speaker adaptation is proposed. To effectively reduce parameters and computational complexity of VITS, an iSTFT-based wave construction decoder is proposed to replace the upsampling-based decoder which is resource-consuming in the original VITS. Besides, NanoFlow is introduced to share the density estimate across flow blocks to reduce the parameters of the prior encoder. Furthermore, to reduce the computational complexity of the textual encoder, scaled-dot attention is replaced with linear attention. To deal with the instability caused by the simplified model, instead of using the original text encoder, phonetic posteriorgram (PPG) is utilized as linguistic feature via a text-to-PPG module, which is then used as input for the encoder. Experiment shows that AdaVITS can generate stable and natural speech in speaker adaptation with 8.97M model parameters and 0.72GFlops computational complexity.
Text to speech (TTS) has made rapid progress in both academia and industry in recent years. Some questions naturally arise that whether a TTS system can achieve human-level quality, how to define/judge that quality and how to achieve it. In this paper, we answer these questions by first defining the human-level quality based on the statistical significance of subjective measure and introducing appropriate guidelines to judge it, and then developing a TTS system called NaturalSpeech that achieves human-level quality on a benchmark dataset. Specifically, we leverage a variational autoencoder (VAE) for end-to-end text to waveform generation, with several key modules to enhance the capacity of the prior from text and reduce the complexity of the posterior from speech, including phoneme pre-training, differentiable duration modeling, bidirectional prior/posterior modeling, and a memory mechanism in VAE. Experiment evaluations on popular LJSpeech dataset show that our proposed NaturalSpeech achieves -0.01 CMOS (comparative mean opinion score) to human recordings at the sentence level, with Wilcoxon signed rank test at p-level p >> 0.05, which demonstrates no statistically significant difference from human recordings for the first time on this dataset.
In this paper, we propose VISinger, a complete end-to-end high-quality singing voice synthesis (SVS) system that directly generates audio waveform from lyrics and musical score. Our approach is inspired by VITS, which adopts VAE-based posterior encoder augmented with normalizing flow-based prior encoder and adversarial decoder to realize complete end-to-end speech generation. VISinger follows the main architecture of VITS, but makes substantial improvements to the prior encoder based on the characteristics of singing. First, instead of using phoneme-level mean and variance of acoustic features, we introduce a length regulator and a frame prior network to get the frame-level mean and variance on acoustic features, modeling the rich acoustic variation in singing. Second, we further introduce an F0 predictor to guide the frame prior network, leading to stabler singing performance. Finally, to improve the singing rhythm, we modify the duration predictor to specifically predict the phoneme to note duration ratio, helped with singing note normalization. Experiments on a professional Mandarin singing corpus show that VISinger significantly outperforms FastSpeech+Neural-Vocoder two-stage approach and the oracle VITS; ablation study demonstrates the effectiveness of different contributions.
Current two-stage TTS framework typically integrates an acoustic model with a vocoder -- the acoustic model predicts a low resolution intermediate representation such as Mel-spectrum while the vocoder generates waveform from the intermediate representation. Although the intermediate representation is served as a bridge, there still exists critical mismatch between the acoustic model and the vocoder as they are commonly separately learned and work on different distributions of representation, leading to inevitable artifacts in the synthesized speech. In this work, different from using pre-designed intermediate representation in most previous studies, we propose to use VAE combining with GAN to learn a latent representation directly from speech and then utilize a flow-based acoustic model to model the distribution of the latent representation from text. In this way, the mismatch problem is migrated as the two stages work on the same distribution. Results demonstrate that the flow-based acoustic model can exactly model the distribution of our learned speech representation and the proposed TTS framework, namely Glow-WaveGAN, can produce high fidelity speech outperforming the state-of-the-art GAN-based model.
In spoken conversations, spontaneous behaviors like filled pause and prolongations always happen. Conversational partner tends to align features of their speech with their interlocutor which is known as entrainment. To produce human-like conversations, we propose a unified controllable spontaneous conversational speech synthesis framework to model the above two phenomena. Specifically, we use explicit labels to represent two typical spontaneous behaviors filled-pause and prolongation in the acoustic model and develop a neural network based predictor to predict the occurrences of the two behaviors from text. We subsequently develop an algorithm based on the predictor to control the occurrence frequency of the behaviors, making the synthesized speech vary from less disfluent to more disfluent. To model the speech entrainment at acoustic level, we utilize a context acoustic encoder to extract a global style embedding from the previous speech conditioning on the synthesizing of current speech. Furthermore, since the current and previous utterances belong to the different speakers in a conversation, we add a domain adversarial training module to eliminate the speaker-related information in the acoustic encoder while maintaining the style-related information. Experiments show that our proposed approach can synthesize realistic conversations and control the occurrences of the spontaneous behaviors naturally.