This paper aims to build an expressive TTS system for multi-speakers, synthesizing a target speaker's speech with multiple styles and emotions. To this end, we propose a novel contrastive learning-based TTS approach to transfer style and emotion across speakers. Specifically, we construct positive-negative sample pairs at both utterance and category (such as emotion-happy or style-poet or speaker A) levels and leverage contrastive learning to better extract disentangled style, emotion, and speaker representations from speech. Furthermore, we introduce a semi-supervised training strategy to the proposed approach to effectively leverage multi-domain data, including style-labeled data, emotion-labeled data, and unlabeled data. We integrate the learned representations into an improved VITS model, enabling it to synthesize expressive speech with diverse styles and emotions for a target speaker. Experiments on multi-domain data demonstrate the good design of our model.
Language models (LMs) have recently flourished in natural language processing and computer vision, generating high-fidelity texts or images in various tasks. In contrast, the current speech generative models are still struggling regarding speech quality and task generalization. This paper presents Vec-Tok Speech, an extensible framework that resembles multiple speech generation tasks, generating expressive and high-fidelity speech. Specifically, we propose a novel speech codec based on speech vectors and semantic tokens. Speech vectors contain acoustic details contributing to high-fidelity speech reconstruction, while semantic tokens focus on the linguistic content of speech, facilitating language modeling. Based on the proposed speech codec, Vec-Tok Speech leverages an LM to undertake the core of speech generation. Moreover, Byte-Pair Encoding (BPE) is introduced to reduce the token length and bit rate for lower exposure bias and longer context coverage, improving the performance of LMs. Vec-Tok Speech can be used for intra- and cross-lingual zero-shot voice conversion (VC), zero-shot speaking style transfer text-to-speech (TTS), speech-to-speech translation (S2ST), speech denoising, and speaker de-identification and anonymization. Experiments show that Vec-Tok Speech, built on 50k hours of speech, performs better than other SOTA models. Code will be available at https://github.com/BakerBunker/VecTok .
This paper presents the T02 team's system for the Singing Voice Conversion Challenge 2023 (SVCC2023). Our system entails a VITS-based SVC model, incorporating three modules: a feature extractor, a voice converter, and a post-processor. Specifically, the feature extractor provides F0 contours and extracts speaker-independent linguistic content from the input singing voice by leveraging a HuBERT model. The voice converter is employed to recompose the speaker timbre, F0, and linguistic content to generate the waveform of the target speaker. Besides, to further improve the audio quality, a fine-tuned DSPGAN vocoder is introduced to re-synthesise the waveform. Given the limited target speaker data, we utilize a two-stage training strategy to adapt the base model to the target speaker. During model adaptation, several tricks, such as data augmentation and joint training with auxiliary singer data, are involved. Official challenge results show that our system achieves superior performance, especially in the cross-domain task, ranking 1st and 2nd in naturalness and similarity, respectively. Further ablation justifies the effectiveness of our system design.
Recently, text-guided content generation has received extensive attention. In this work, we explore the possibility of text description-based speaker generation, i.e., using text prompts to control the speaker generation process. Specifically, we propose PromptSpeaker, a text-guided speaker generation system. PromptSpeaker consists of a prompt encoder, a zero-shot VITS, and a Glow model, where the prompt encoder predicts a prior distribution based on the text description and samples from this distribution to obtain a semantic representation. The Glow model subsequently converts the semantic representation into a speaker representation, and the zero-shot VITS finally synthesizes the speaker's voice based on the speaker representation. We verify that PromptSpeaker can generate speakers new from the training set by objective metrics, and the synthetic speaker voice has reasonable subjective matching quality with the speaker prompt.
Zero-shot emotion transfer in cross-lingual speech synthesis aims to transfer emotion from an arbitrary speech reference in the source language to the synthetic speech in the target language. Building such a system faces challenges of unnatural foreign accents and difficulty in modeling the shared emotional expressions of different languages. Building on the DelightfulTTS neural architecture, this paper addresses these challenges by introducing specifically-designed modules to model the language-specific prosody features and language-shared emotional expressions separately. Specifically, the language-specific speech prosody is learned by a non-autoregressive predictive coding (NPC) module to improve the naturalness of the synthetic cross-lingual speech. The shared emotional expression between different languages is extracted from a pre-trained self-supervised model HuBERT with strong generalization capabilities. We further use hierarchical emotion modeling to capture more comprehensive emotions across different languages. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed framework's effectiveness in synthesizing bi-lingual emotional speech for the monolingual target speaker without emotional training data.
Style voice conversion aims to transform the style of source speech to a desired style according to real-world application demands. However, the current style voice conversion approach relies on pre-defined labels or reference speech to control the conversion process, which leads to limitations in style diversity or falls short in terms of the intuitive and interpretability of style representation. In this study, we propose PromptVC, a novel style voice conversion approach that employs a latent diffusion model to generate a style vector driven by natural language prompts. Specifically, the style vector is extracted by a style encoder during training, and then the latent diffusion model is trained independently to sample the style vector from noise, with this process being conditioned on natural language prompts. To improve style expressiveness, we leverage HuBERT to extract discrete tokens and replace them with the K-Means center embedding to serve as the linguistic content, which minimizes residual style information. Additionally, we deduplicate the same discrete token and employ a differentiable duration predictor to re-predict the duration of each token, which can adapt the duration of the same linguistic content to different styles. The subjective and objective evaluation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system.
Multidimensional constellation shaping of up to 32 dimensions with different spectral efficiencies are compared through AWGN and fiber-optic simulations. The results show that no constellation is universal and the balance of required and effective SNRs should be jointly considered for the specific optical transmission scenario.
Previous multilingual text-to-speech (TTS) approaches have considered leveraging monolingual speaker data to enable cross-lingual speech synthesis. However, such data-efficient approaches have ignored synthesizing emotional aspects of speech due to the challenges of cross-speaker cross-lingual emotion transfer - the heavy entanglement of speaker timbre, emotion, and language factors in the speech signal will make a system produce cross-lingual synthetic speech with an undesired foreign accent and weak emotion expressiveness. This paper proposes the Multilingual Emotional TTS (METTS) model to mitigate these problems, realizing both cross-speaker and cross-lingual emotion transfer. Specifically, METTS takes DelightfulTTS as the backbone model and proposes the following designs. First, to alleviate the foreign accent problem, METTS introduces multi-scale emotion modeling to disentangle speech prosody into coarse-grained and fine-grained scales, producing language-agnostic and language-specific emotion representations, respectively. Second, as a pre-processing step, formant shift-based information perturbation is applied to the reference signal for better disentanglement of speaker timbre in the speech. Third, a vector quantization-based emotion matcher is designed for reference selection, leading to decent naturalness and emotion diversity in cross-lingual synthetic speech. Experiments demonstrate the good design of METTS.
Direct speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) has gradually become popular as it has many advantages compared with cascade S2ST. However, current research mainly focuses on the accuracy of semantic translation and ignores the speech style transfer from a source language to a target language. The lack of high-fidelity expressive parallel data makes such style transfer challenging, especially in more practical zero-shot scenarios. To solve this problem, we first build a parallel corpus using a multi-lingual multi-speaker text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) system and then propose the StyleS2ST model with cross-lingual speech style transfer ability based on a style adaptor on a direct S2ST system framework. Enabling continuous style space modeling of an acoustic model through parallel corpus training and non-parallel TTS data augmentation, StyleS2ST captures cross-lingual acoustic feature mapping from the source to the target language. Experiments show that StyleS2ST achieves good style similarity and naturalness in both in-set and out-of-set zero-shot scenarios.