We present Ego-Exo4D, a diverse, large-scale multimodal multiview video dataset and benchmark challenge. Ego-Exo4D centers around simultaneously-captured egocentric and exocentric video of skilled human activities (e.g., sports, music, dance, bike repair). More than 800 participants from 13 cities worldwide performed these activities in 131 different natural scene contexts, yielding long-form captures from 1 to 42 minutes each and 1,422 hours of video combined. The multimodal nature of the dataset is unprecedented: the video is accompanied by multichannel audio, eye gaze, 3D point clouds, camera poses, IMU, and multiple paired language descriptions -- including a novel "expert commentary" done by coaches and teachers and tailored to the skilled-activity domain. To push the frontier of first-person video understanding of skilled human activity, we also present a suite of benchmark tasks and their annotations, including fine-grained activity understanding, proficiency estimation, cross-view translation, and 3D hand/body pose. All resources will be open sourced to fuel new research in the community.
There has been a longstanding belief that generation can facilitate a true understanding of visual data. In line with this, we revisit generatively pre-training visual representations in light of recent interest in denoising diffusion models. While directly pre-training with diffusion models does not produce strong representations, we condition diffusion models on masked input and formulate diffusion models as masked autoencoders (DiffMAE). Our approach is capable of (i) serving as a strong initialization for downstream recognition tasks, (ii) conducting high-quality image inpainting, and (iii) being effortlessly extended to video where it produces state-of-the-art classification accuracy. We further perform a comprehensive study on the pros and cons of design choices and build connections between diffusion models and masked autoencoders.
We present Ego-Only, the first training pipeline that enables state-of-the-art action detection on egocentric (first-person) videos without any form of exocentric (third-person) pretraining. Previous approaches found that egocentric models cannot be trained effectively from scratch and that exocentric representations transfer well to first-person videos. In this paper we revisit these two observations. Motivated by the large content and appearance gap separating the two domains, we propose a strategy that enables effective training of egocentric models without exocentric pretraining. Our Ego-Only pipeline is simple. It trains the video representation with a masked autoencoder finetuned for temporal segmentation. The learned features are then fed to an off-the-shelf temporal action localization method to detect actions. We evaluate our approach on two established egocentric video datasets: Ego4D and EPIC-Kitchens-100. On Ego4D, our Ego-Only is on-par with exocentric pretraining methods that use an order of magnitude more labels. On EPIC-Kitchens-100, our Ego-Only even outperforms exocentric pretraining (by 2.1% on verbs and by 1.8% on nouns), setting a new state-of-the-art.
This paper presents a simple and effective visual prompting method for adapting pre-trained models to downstream recognition tasks. Our method includes two key designs. First, rather than directly adding together the prompt and the image, we treat the prompt as an extra and independent learnable component. We show that the strategy of reconciling the prompt and the image matters, and find that warping the prompt around a properly shrinked image empirically works the best. Second, we re-introduce two "old tricks" commonly used in building transferable adversarial examples, i.e., input diversity and gradient normalization, into visual prompting. These techniques improve optimization and enable the prompt to generalize better. We provide extensive experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Using a CLIP model, our prompting method sets a new record of 82.8% average accuracy across 12 popular classification datasets, substantially surpassing the prior art by +5.6%. It is worth noting that this prompting performance already outperforms linear probing by +2.1% and can even match fully fine-tuning in certain datasets. In addition, our prompting method shows competitive performance across different data scales and against distribution shifts. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/UCSC-VLAA/EVP.
Video-language pre-training is crucial for learning powerful multi-modal representation. However, it typically requires a massive amount of computation. In this paper, we develop SMAUG, an efficient pre-training framework for video-language models. The foundation component in SMAUG is masked autoencoders. Different from prior works which only mask textual inputs, our masking strategy considers both visual and textual modalities, providing a better cross-modal alignment and saving more pre-training costs. On top of that, we introduce a space-time token sparsification module, which leverages context information to further select only "important" spatial regions and temporal frames for pre-training. Coupling all these designs allows our method to enjoy both competitive performances on text-to-video retrieval and video question answering tasks, and much less pre-training costs by 1.9X or more. For example, our SMAUG only needs about 50 NVIDIA A6000 GPU hours for pre-training to attain competitive performances on these two video-language tasks across six popular benchmarks.
This paper studies the potential of distilling knowledge from pre-trained models, especially Masked Autoencoders. Our approach is simple: in addition to optimizing the pixel reconstruction loss on masked inputs, we minimize the distance between the intermediate feature map of the teacher model and that of the student model. This design leads to a computationally efficient knowledge distillation framework, given 1) only a small visible subset of patches is used, and 2) the (cumbersome) teacher model only needs to be partially executed, \ie, forward propagate inputs through the first few layers, for obtaining intermediate feature maps. Compared to directly distilling fine-tuned models, distilling pre-trained models substantially improves downstream performance. For example, by distilling the knowledge from an MAE pre-trained ViT-L into a ViT-B, our method achieves 84.0% ImageNet top-1 accuracy, outperforming the baseline of directly distilling a fine-tuned ViT-L by 1.2%. More intriguingly, our method can robustly distill knowledge from teacher models even with extremely high masking ratios: e.g., with 95% masking ratio where merely TEN patches are visible during distillation, our ViT-B competitively attains a top-1 ImageNet accuracy of 83.6%; surprisingly, it can still secure 82.4% top-1 ImageNet accuracy by aggressively training with just FOUR visible patches (98% masking ratio). The code and models are publicly available at https://github.com/UCSC-VLAA/DMAE.
The rise of transformers in vision tasks not only advances network backbone designs, but also starts a brand-new page to achieve end-to-end image recognition (e.g., object detection and panoptic segmentation). Originated from Natural Language Processing (NLP), transformer architectures, consisting of self-attention and cross-attention, effectively learn long-range interactions between elements in a sequence. However, we observe that most existing transformer-based vision models simply borrow the idea from NLP, neglecting the crucial difference between languages and images, particularly the extremely large sequence length of spatially flattened pixel features. This subsequently impedes the learning in cross-attention between pixel features and object queries. In this paper, we rethink the relationship between pixels and object queries and propose to reformulate the cross-attention learning as a clustering process. Inspired by the traditional k-means clustering algorithm, we develop a k-means Mask Xformer (kMaX-DeepLab) for segmentation tasks, which not only improves the state-of-the-art, but also enjoys a simple and elegant design. As a result, our kMaX-DeepLab achieves a new state-of-the-art performance on COCO val set with 58.0% PQ, and Cityscapes val set with 68.4% PQ, 44.0% AP, and 83.5% mIoU without test-time augmentation or external dataset. We hope our work can shed some light on designing transformers tailored for vision tasks. Code and models are available at https://github.com/google-research/deeplab2
We propose Clustering Mask Transformer (CMT-DeepLab), a transformer-based framework for panoptic segmentation designed around clustering. It rethinks the existing transformer architectures used in segmentation and detection; CMT-DeepLab considers the object queries as cluster centers, which fill the role of grouping the pixels when applied to segmentation. The clustering is computed with an alternating procedure, by first assigning pixels to the clusters by their feature affinity, and then updating the cluster centers and pixel features. Together, these operations comprise the Clustering Mask Transformer (CMT) layer, which produces cross-attention that is denser and more consistent with the final segmentation task. CMT-DeepLab improves the performance over prior art significantly by 4.4% PQ, achieving a new state-of-the-art of 55.7% PQ on the COCO test-dev set.