A growing body of research has explored how to support humans in making better use of AI-based decision support, including via training and onboarding. Existing research has focused on decision-making tasks where it is possible to evaluate "appropriate reliance" by comparing each decision against a ground truth label that cleanly maps to both the AI's predictive target and the human decision-maker's goals. However, this assumption does not hold in many real-world settings where AI tools are deployed today (e.g., social work, criminal justice, and healthcare). In this paper, we introduce a process-oriented notion of appropriate reliance called critical use that centers the human's ability to situate AI predictions against knowledge that is uniquely available to them but unavailable to the AI model. To explore how training can support critical use, we conduct a randomized online experiment in a complex social decision-making setting: child maltreatment screening. We find that, by providing participants with accelerated, low-stakes opportunities to practice AI-assisted decision-making in this setting, novices came to exhibit patterns of disagreement with AI that resemble those of experienced workers. A qualitative examination of participants' explanations for their AI-assisted decisions revealed that they drew upon qualitative case narratives, to which the AI model did not have access, to learn when (not) to rely on AI predictions. Our findings open new questions for the study and design of training for real-world AI-assisted decision-making.
Although machine learning (ML) has shown promise in numerous domains, there are concerns about generalizability to out-of-sample data. This is currently addressed by centrally sharing ample, and importantly diverse, data from multiple sites. However, such centralization is challenging to scale (or even not feasible) due to various limitations. Federated ML (FL) provides an alternative to train accurate and generalizable ML models, by only sharing numerical model updates. Here we present findings from the largest FL study to-date, involving data from 71 healthcare institutions across 6 continents, to generate an automatic tumor boundary detector for the rare disease of glioblastoma, utilizing the largest dataset of such patients ever used in the literature (25,256 MRI scans from 6,314 patients). We demonstrate a 33% improvement over a publicly trained model to delineate the surgically targetable tumor, and 23% improvement over the tumor's entire extent. We anticipate our study to: 1) enable more studies in healthcare informed by large and diverse data, ensuring meaningful results for rare diseases and underrepresented populations, 2) facilitate further quantitative analyses for glioblastoma via performance optimization of our consensus model for eventual public release, and 3) demonstrate the effectiveness of FL at such scale and task complexity as a paradigm shift for multi-site collaborations, alleviating the need for data sharing.
Surface reconstruction from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data is indispensable in medical image analysis and clinical research. A reliable and effective reconstruction tool should: be fast in prediction of accurate well localised and high resolution models, evaluate prediction uncertainty, work with as little input data as possible. Current deep learning state of the art (SOTA) 3D reconstruction methods, however, often only produce shapes of limited variability positioned in a canonical position or lack uncertainty evaluation. In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic deep learning approach for concurrent 3D surface reconstruction from sparse 2D MR image data and aleatoric uncertainty prediction. Our method is capable of reconstructing large surface meshes from three quasi-orthogonal MR imaging slices from limited training sets whilst modelling the location of each mesh vertex through a Gaussian distribution. Prior shape information is encoded using a built-in linear principal component analysis (PCA) model. Extensive experiments on cardiac MR data show that our probabilistic approach successfully assesses prediction uncertainty while at the same time qualitatively and quantitatively outperforms SOTA methods in shape prediction. Compared to SOTA, we are capable of properly localising and orientating the prediction via the use of a spatially aware neural network.
Humans can infer a great deal about the meaning of a word, using the syntax and semantics of surrounding words even if it is their first time reading or hearing it. We can also generalise the learned concept of the word to new tasks. Despite great progress in achieving human-level performance in certain tasks (Silver et al., 2016), learning from one or few examples remains a key challenge in machine learning, and has not thoroughly been explored in Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this work we tackle the problem of oneshot learning for an NLP task by employing ideas from recent developments in machine learning: embeddings, attention mechanisms (softmax) and similarity measures (cosine, Euclidean, Poincare, and Minkowski). We adapt the framework suggested in matching networks (Vinyals et al., 2016), and explore the effectiveness of the aforementioned methods in one, two and three-shot learning problems on the task of predicting missing word explored in (Vinyals et al., 2016) by using the WikiText-2 dataset. Our work contributes in two ways: Our first contribution is that we explore the effectiveness of different distance metrics on k-shot learning, and show that there is no single best distance metric for k-shot learning, which challenges common belief. We found that the performance of a distance metric depends on the number of shots used during training. The second contribution of our work is that we establish a benchmark for one, two, and three-shot learning on a language task with a publicly available dataset that can be used to benchmark against in future research.
Flow-like experiences at work are important for productivity and worker well-being. However, it is difficult to objectively detect when workers are experiencing flow in their work. In this paper, we investigate how to predict a worker's focus state based on physiological signals. We conducted a lab study to collect physiological data from knowledge workers experienced different levels of flow while performing work tasks. We used the nine characteristics of flow to design tasks that would induce different focus states. A manipulation check using the Flow Short Scale verified that participants experienced three distinct flow states, one overly challenging non-flow state, and two types of flow states, balanced flow, and automatic flow. We built machine learning classifiers that can distinguish between non-flow and flow states with 0.889 average AUC and rest states from working states with 0.98 average AUC. The results show that physiological sensing can detect focused flow states of knowledge workers and can enable ways to for individuals and organizations to improve both productivity and worker satisfaction.
Managing post-surgical pain is critical for successful surgical outcomes. One of the challenges of pain management is accurately assessing the pain level of patients. Self-reported numeric pain ratings are limited because they are subjective, can be affected by mood, and can influence the patient's perception of pain when making comparisons. In this paper, we introduce an approach that analyzes 2D and 3D facial keypoints of post-surgical patients to estimate their pain intensity level. Our approach leverages the previously unexplored capabilities of a smartphone to capture a dense 3D representation of a person's face as input for pain intensity level estimation. Our contributions are adata collection study with post-surgical patients to collect ground-truth labeled sequences of 2D and 3D facial keypoints for developing a pain estimation algorithm, a pain estimation model that uses multiple instance learning to overcome inherent limitations in facial keypoint sequences, and the preliminary results of the pain estimation model using 2D and 3D features with comparisons of alternate approaches.
Despite recent advances in natural language processing and other language technology, the application of such technology to language documentation and conservation has been limited. In August 2019, a workshop was held at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh to attempt to bring together language community members, documentary linguists, and technologists to discuss how to bridge this gap and create prototypes of novel and practical language revitalization technologies. This paper reports the results of this workshop, including issues discussed, and various conceived and implemented technologies for nine languages: Arapaho, Cayuga, Inuktitut, Irish Gaelic, Kidaw'ida, Kwak'wala, Ojibwe, San Juan Quiahije Chatino, and Seneca.
Multilingual models can improve language processing, particularly for low resource situations, by sharing parameters across languages. Multilingual acoustic models, however, generally ignore the difference between phonemes (sounds that can support lexical contrasts in a particular language) and their corresponding phones (the sounds that are actually spoken, which are language independent). This can lead to performance degradation when combining a variety of training languages, as identically annotated phonemes can actually correspond to several different underlying phonetic realizations. In this work, we propose a joint model of both language-independent phone and language-dependent phoneme distributions. In multilingual ASR experiments over 11 languages, we find that this model improves testing performance by 2% phoneme error rate absolute in low-resource conditions. Additionally, because we are explicitly modeling language-independent phones, we can build a (nearly-)universal phone recognizer that, when combined with the PHOIBLE large, manually curated database of phone inventories, can be customized into 2,000 language dependent recognizers. Experiments on two low-resourced indigenous languages, Inuktitut and Tusom, show that our recognizer achieves phone accuracy improvements of more than 17%, moving a step closer to speech recognition for all languages in the world.
Graphs are widely used as a natural framework that captures interactions between individual elements represented as nodes in a graph. In medical applications, specifically, nodes can represent individuals within a potentially large population (patients or healthy controls) accompanied by a set of features, while the graph edges incorporate associations between subjects in an intuitive manner. This representation allows to incorporate the wealth of imaging and non-imaging information as well as individual subject features simultaneously in disease classification tasks. Previous graph-based approaches for supervised or unsupervised learning in the context of disease prediction solely focus on pairwise similarities between subjects, disregarding individual characteristics and features, or rather rely on subject-specific imaging feature vectors and fail to model interactions between them. In this paper, we present a thorough evaluation of a generic framework that leverages both imaging and non-imaging information and can be used for brain analysis in large populations. This framework exploits Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) and involves representing populations as a sparse graph, where its nodes are associated with imaging-based feature vectors, while phenotypic information is integrated as edge weights. The extensive evaluation explores the effect of each individual component of this framework on disease prediction performance and further compares it to different baselines. The framework performance is tested on two large datasets with diverse underlying data, ABIDE and ADNI, for the prediction of Autism Spectrum Disorder and conversion to Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Our analysis shows that our novel framework can improve over state-of-the-art results on both databases, with 70.4% classification accuracy for ABIDE and 80.0% for ADNI.
We propose a novel attention gate (AG) model for medical imaging that automatically learns to focus on target structures of varying shapes and sizes. Models trained with AGs implicitly learn to suppress irrelevant regions in an input image while highlighting salient features useful for a specific task. This enables us to eliminate the necessity of using explicit external tissue/organ localisation modules of cascaded convolutional neural networks (CNNs). AGs can be easily integrated into standard CNN architectures such as the U-Net model with minimal computational overhead while increasing the model sensitivity and prediction accuracy. The proposed Attention U-Net architecture is evaluated on two large CT abdominal datasets for multi-class image segmentation. Experimental results show that AGs consistently improve the prediction performance of U-Net across different datasets and training sizes while preserving computational efficiency. The code for the proposed architecture is publicly available.