Fine-tuning pre-trained language models (LMs) has become the de facto standard in many NLP tasks. Nevertheless, fine-tuned LMs are still prone to robustness issues, such as adversarial robustness and model calibration. Several perspectives of robustness for LMs have been studied independently, but lacking a unified consideration in multiple perspectives. In this paper, we propose Robustifying LMs via Adversarial perturbation with Selective Training (RoAST), a simple yet effective fine-tuning technique to enhance the multi-perspective robustness of LMs in a unified way. RoAST effectively incorporates two important sources for the model robustness, robustness on the perturbed inputs and generalizable knowledge in pre-trained LMs. To be specific, RoAST introduces adversarial perturbation during fine-tuning while the model parameters are selectively updated upon their relative importance to minimize unnecessary deviation. Under a unified evaluation of fine-tuned LMs by incorporating four representative perspectives of model robustness, we demonstrate the effectiveness of RoAST compared to state-of-the-art fine-tuning methods on six different types of LMs, which indicates its usefulness in practice.
We present Multiscale Multiview Vision Transformers (MMViT), which introduces multiscale feature maps and multiview encodings to transformer models. Our model encodes different views of the input signal and builds several channel-resolution feature stages to process the multiple views of the input at different resolutions in parallel. At each scale stage, we use a cross-attention block to fuse information across different views. This enables the MMViT model to acquire complex high-dimensional representations of the input at different resolutions. The proposed model can serve as a backbone model in multiple domains. We demonstrate the effectiveness of MMViT on audio and image classification tasks, achieving state-of-the-art results.
Whether by processing videos with fixed resolution from start to end or incorporating pooling and down-scaling strategies, existing video transformers process the whole video content throughout the network without specially handling the large portions of redundant information. In this paper, we present a Supertoken Video Transformer (SVT) that incorporates a Semantic Pooling Module (SPM) to aggregate latent representations along the depth of visual transformer based on their semantics, and thus, reduces redundancy inherent in video inputs.~Qualitative results show that our method can effectively reduce redundancy by merging latent representations with similar semantics and thus increase the proportion of salient information for downstream tasks.~Quantitatively, our method improves the performance of both ViT and MViT while requiring significantly less computations on the Kinectics and Something-Something-V2 benchmarks.~More specifically, with our SPM, we improve the accuracy of MAE-pretrained ViT-B and ViT-L by 1.5% with 33% less GFLOPs and by 0.2% with 55% less FLOPs, respectively, on the Kinectics-400 benchmark, and improve the accuracy of MViTv2-B by 0.2% and 0.3% with 22% less GFLOPs on Kinectics-400 and Something-Something-V2, respectively.
Masked Language Modeling (MLM) has proven to be an essential component of Vision-Language (VL) pretraining. To implement MLM, the researcher must make two design choices: the masking strategy, which determines which tokens to mask, and the masking rate, which determines how many tokens to mask. Previous work has focused primarily on the masking strategy while setting the masking rate at a default of 15\%. In this paper, we show that increasing this masking rate improves downstream performance while simultaneously reducing performance gap among different masking strategies, rendering the uniform masking strategy competitive to other more complex ones. Surprisingly, we also discover that increasing the masking rate leads to gains in Image-Text Matching (ITM) tasks, suggesting that the role of MLM goes beyond language modeling in VL pretraining.
Retinal vessel segmentation from retinal images is an essential task for developing the computer-aided diagnosis system for retinal diseases. Efforts have been made on high-performance deep learning-based approaches to segment the retinal images in an end-to-end manner. However, the acquisition of retinal vessel images and segmentation labels requires onerous work from professional clinicians, which results in smaller training dataset with incomplete labels. As known, data-driven methods suffer from data insufficiency, and the models will easily over-fit the small-scale training data. Such a situation becomes more severe when the training vessel labels are incomplete or incorrect. In this paper, we propose a Study Group Learning (SGL) scheme to improve the robustness of the model trained on noisy labels. Besides, a learned enhancement map provides better visualization than conventional methods as an auxiliary tool for clinicians. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method further improves the vessel segmentation performance in DRIVE and CHASE$\_$DB1 datasets, especially when the training labels are noisy.
Accurate estimation of shape thickness from medical images is crucial in clinical applications. For example, the thickness of myocardium is one of the key to cardiac disease diagnosis. While mathematical models are available to obtain accurate dense thickness estimation, they suffer from heavy computational overhead due to iterative solvers. To this end, we propose novel methods for dense thickness estimation, including a fast solver that estimates thickness from binary annular shapes and an end-to-end network that estimates thickness directly from raw cardiac images.We test the proposed models on three cardiac datasets and one synthetic dataset, achieving impressive results and generalizability on all. Thickness estimation is performed without iterative solvers or manual correction, which is 100 times faster than the mathematical model. We also analyze thickness patterns on different cardiac pathologies with a standard clinical model and the results demonstrate the potential clinical value of our method for thickness based cardiac disease diagnosis.
Cardiac motion estimation is critical to the assessment of cardiac function. Myocardium feature tracking (FT) can directly estimate cardiac motion from cine MRI, which requires no special scanning procedure. However, current deep learning-based FT methods may result in unrealistic myocardium shapes since the learning is solely guided by image intensities without considering anatomy. On the other hand, motion estimation through learning is challenging because ground-truth motion fields are almost impossible to obtain. In this study, we propose a novel Anatomy-Aware Tracker (AATracker) for cardiac motion estimation that preserves anatomy by weak supervision. A convolutional variational autoencoder (VAE) is trained to encapsulate realistic myocardium shapes. A baseline dense motion tracker is trained to approximate the motion fields and then refined to estimate anatomy-aware motion fields under the weak supervision from the VAE. We evaluate the proposed method on long-axis cardiac cine MRI, which has more complex myocardium appearances and motions than short-axis. Compared with other methods, AATracker significantly improves the tracking performance and provides visually more realistic tracking results, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed weakly-supervision scheme in cardiac motion estimation.
Cardiac motion estimation plays a key role in MRI cardiac feature tracking and function assessment such as myocardium strain. In this paper, we propose Motion Pyramid Networks, a novel deep learning-based approach for accurate and efficient cardiac motion estimation. We predict and fuse a pyramid of motion fields from multiple scales of feature representations to generate a more refined motion field. We then use a novel cyclic teacher-student training strategy to make the inference end-to-end and further improve the tracking performance. Our teacher model provides more accurate motion estimation as supervision through progressive motion compensations. Our student model learns from the teacher model to estimate motion in a single step while maintaining accuracy. The teacher-student knowledge distillation is performed in a cyclic way for a further performance boost. Our proposed method outperforms a strong baseline model on two public available clinical datasets significantly, evaluated by a variety of metrics and the inference time. New evaluation metrics are also proposed to represent errors in a clinically meaningful manner.
Motion estimation of cardiac MRI videos is crucial for the evaluation of human heart anatomy and function. Recent researches show promising results with deep learning-based methods. In clinical deployment, however, they suffer dramatic performance drops due to mismatched distributions between training and testing datasets, commonly encountered in the clinical environment. On the other hand, it is arguably impossible to collect all representative datasets and to train a universal tracker before deployment. In this context, we proposed a novel fast online adaptive learning (FOAL) framework: an online gradient descent based optimizer that is optimized by a meta-learner. The meta-learner enables the online optimizer to perform a fast and robust adaptation. We evaluated our method through extensive experiments on two public clinical datasets. The results showed the superior performance of FOAL in accuracy compared to the offline-trained tracking method. On average, the FOAL took only $0.4$ second per video for online optimization.