In this paper, we investigate the intersection of large generative AI models and cloud-native computing architectures. Recent large models such as ChatGPT, while revolutionary in their capabilities, face challenges like escalating costs and demand for high-end GPUs. Drawing analogies between large-model-as-a-service (LMaaS) and cloud database-as-a-service (DBaaS), we describe an AI-native computing paradigm that harnesses the power of both cloud-native technologies (e.g., multi-tenancy and serverless computing) and advanced machine learning runtime (e.g., batched LoRA inference). These joint efforts aim to optimize costs-of-goods-sold (COGS) and improve resource accessibility. The journey of merging these two domains is just at the beginning and we hope to stimulate future research and development in this area.
In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
In this study, we introduce adaptive KV cache compression, a plug-and-play method that reduces the memory footprint of generative inference for Large Language Models (LLMs). Different from the conventional KV cache that retains key and value vectors for all context tokens, we conduct targeted profiling to discern the intrinsic structure of attention modules. Based on the recognized structure, we then construct the KV cache in an adaptive manner: evicting long-range contexts on attention heads emphasizing local contexts, discarding non-special tokens on attention heads centered on special tokens, and only employing the standard KV cache for attention heads that broadly attend to all tokens. Moreover, with the lightweight attention profiling used to guide the construction of the adaptive KV cache, FastGen can be deployed without resource-intensive fine-tuning or re-training. In our experiments across various asks, FastGen demonstrates substantial reduction on GPU memory consumption with negligible generation quality loss. We will release our code and the compatible CUDA kernel for reproducibility.
Most of the existing multi-modal models, hindered by their incapacity to adeptly manage interleaved image-and-text inputs in multi-image, multi-round dialogues, face substantial constraints in resource allocation for training and data accessibility, impacting their adaptability and scalability across varied interaction realms. To address this, we present the DeepSpeed-VisualChat framework, designed to optimize Large Language Models (LLMs) by incorporating multi-modal capabilities, with a focus on enhancing the proficiency of Large Vision and Language Models in handling interleaved inputs. Our framework is notable for (1) its open-source support for multi-round and multi-image dialogues, (2) introducing an innovative multi-modal causal attention mechanism, and (3) utilizing data blending techniques on existing datasets to assure seamless interactions in multi-round, multi-image conversations. Compared to existing frameworks, DeepSpeed-VisualChat shows superior scalability up to 70B parameter language model size, representing a significant advancement in multi-modal language models and setting a solid foundation for future explorations.
Computation in a typical Transformer-based large language model (LLM) can be characterized by batch size, hidden dimension, number of layers, and sequence length. Until now, system works for accelerating LLM training have focused on the first three dimensions: data parallelism for batch size, tensor parallelism for hidden size and pipeline parallelism for model depth or layers. These widely studied forms of parallelism are not targeted or optimized for long sequence Transformer models. Given practical application needs for long sequence LLM, renewed attentions are being drawn to sequence parallelism. However, existing works in sequence parallelism are constrained by memory-communication inefficiency, limiting their scalability to long sequence large models. In this work, we introduce DeepSpeed-Ulysses, a novel, portable and effective methodology for enabling highly efficient and scalable LLM training with extremely long sequence length. DeepSpeed-Ulysses at its core partitions input data along the sequence dimension and employs an efficient all-to-all collective communication for attention computation. Theoretical communication analysis shows that whereas other methods incur communication overhead as sequence length increases, DeepSpeed-Ulysses maintains constant communication volume when sequence length and compute devices are increased proportionally. Furthermore, experimental evaluations show that DeepSpeed-Ulysses trains 2.5X faster with 4X longer sequence length than the existing method SOTA baseline.
Text-to-image generation (TTI) refers to the usage of models that could process text input and generate high fidelity images based on text descriptions. Text-to-image generation using neural networks could be traced back to the emergence of Generative Adversial Network (GAN), followed by the autoregressive Transformer. Diffusion models are one prominent type of generative model used for the generation of images through the systematic introduction of noises with repeating steps. As an effect of the impressive results of diffusion models on image synthesis, it has been cemented as the major image decoder used by text-to-image models and brought text-to-image generation to the forefront of machine-learning (ML) research. In the era of large models, scaling up model size and the integration with large language models have further improved the performance of TTI models, resulting the generation result nearly indistinguishable from real-world images, revolutionizing the way we retrieval images. Our explorative study has incentivised us to think that there are further ways of scaling text-to-image models with the combination of innovative model architectures and prediction enhancement techniques. We have divided the work of this survey into five main sections wherein we detail the frameworks of major literature in order to delve into the different types of text-to-image generation methods. Following this we provide a detailed comparison and critique of these methods and offer possible pathways of improvement for future work. In the future work, we argue that TTI development could yield impressive productivity improvements for creation, particularly in the context of the AIGC era, and could be extended to more complex tasks such as video generation and 3D generation.
Continual learning (CL) trains NN models incrementally from a continuous stream of tasks. To remember previously learned knowledge, prior studies store old samples over a memory hierarchy and replay them when new tasks arrive. Edge devices that adopt CL to preserve data privacy are typically energy-sensitive and thus require high model accuracy while not compromising energy efficiency, i.e., cost-effectiveness. Our work is the first to explore the design space of hierarchical memory replay-based CL to gain insights into achieving cost-effectiveness on edge devices. We present Miro, a novel system runtime that carefully integrates our insights into the CL framework by enabling it to dynamically configure the CL system based on resource states for the best cost-effectiveness. To reach this goal, Miro also performs online profiling on parameters with clear accuracy-energy trade-offs and adapts to optimal values with low overhead. Extensive evaluations show that Miro significantly outperforms baseline systems we build for comparison, consistently achieving higher cost-effectiveness.
* This paper is to be published in the 29th Annual International
Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM MobiCom 23)