The application of Large Language Models (LLMs) to the medical domain has stimulated the interest of researchers. Recent studies have focused on constructing Instruction Fine-Tuning (IFT) data through medical knowledge graphs to enrich the interactive medical knowledge of LLMs. However, the medical literature serving as a rich source of medical knowledge remains unexplored. Our work introduces the CALLA dataset to probe LLMs' interactive knowledge acquisition from Chinese medical literature. It assesses the proficiency of LLMs in mastering medical knowledge through a free-dialogue fact-checking task. We identify a phenomenon called the ``fact-following response``, where LLMs tend to affirm facts mentioned in questions and display a reluctance to challenge them. To eliminate the inaccurate evaluation caused by this phenomenon, for the golden fact, we artificially construct test data from two perspectives: one consistent with the fact and one inconsistent with the fact. Drawing from the probing experiment on the CALLA dataset, we conclude that IFT data highly correlated with the medical literature corpus serves as a potent catalyst for LLMs, enabling themselves to skillfully employ the medical knowledge acquired during the pre-training phase within interactive scenarios, enhancing accuracy. Furthermore, we design a framework for automatically constructing IFT data based on medical literature and discuss some real-world applications.
Pre-trained models have achieved success in Chinese Short Text Matching (STM) tasks, but they often rely on superficial clues, leading to a lack of robust predictions. To address this issue, it is crucial to analyze and mitigate the influence of superficial clues on STM models. Our study aims to investigate their over-reliance on the edit distance feature, commonly used to measure the semantic similarity of Chinese text pairs, which can be considered a superficial clue. To mitigate STM models' over-reliance on superficial clues, we propose a novel resampling training strategy called Gradually Learn Samples Containing Superficial Clue (GLS-CSC). Through comprehensive evaluations of In-Domain (I.D.), Robustness (Rob.), and Out-Of-Domain (O.O.D.) test sets, we demonstrate that GLS-CSC outperforms existing methods in terms of enhancing the robustness and generalization of Chinese STM models. Moreover, we conduct a detailed analysis of existing methods and reveal their commonality.
In the field of parallel imaging (PI), alongside image-domain regularization methods, substantial research has been dedicated to exploring $k$-space interpolation. However, the interpretability of these methods remains an unresolved issue. Furthermore, these approaches currently face acceleration limitations that are comparable to those experienced by image-domain methods. In order to enhance interpretability and overcome the acceleration limitations, this paper introduces an interpretable framework that unifies both $k$-space interpolation techniques and image-domain methods, grounded in the physical principles of heat diffusion equations. Building upon this foundational framework, a novel $k$-space interpolation method is proposed. Specifically, we model the process of high-frequency information attenuation in $k$-space as a heat diffusion equation, while the effort to reconstruct high-frequency information from low-frequency regions can be conceptualized as a reverse heat equation. However, solving the reverse heat equation poses a challenging inverse problem. To tackle this challenge, we modify the heat equation to align with the principles of magnetic resonance PI physics and employ the score-based generative method to precisely execute the modified reverse heat diffusion. Finally, experimental validation conducted on publicly available datasets demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach over traditional $k$-space interpolation methods, deep learning-based $k$-space interpolation methods, and conventional diffusion models in terms of reconstruction accuracy, particularly in high-frequency regions.
Consistency regularization methods, such as R-Drop (Liang et al., 2021) and CrossConST (Gao et al., 2023), have achieved impressive supervised and zero-shot performance in the neural machine translation (NMT) field. Can we also boost end-to-end (E2E) speech-to-text translation (ST) by leveraging consistency regularization? In this paper, we conduct empirical studies on intra-modal and cross-modal consistency and propose two training strategies, SimRegCR and SimZeroCR, for E2E ST in regular and zero-shot scenarios. Experiments on the MuST-C benchmark show that our approaches achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance in most translation directions. The analyses prove that regularization brought by the intra-modal consistency, instead of modality gap, is crucial for the regular E2E ST, and the cross-modal consistency could close the modality gap and boost the zero-shot E2E ST performance.
Brain tissue segmentation is essential for neuroscience and clinical studies. However, segmentation on longitudinal data is challenging due to dynamic brain changes across the lifespan. Previous researches mainly focus on self-supervision with regularizations and will lose longitudinal generalization when fine-tuning on a specific age group. In this paper, we propose a dual meta-learning paradigm to learn longitudinally consistent representations and persist when fine-tuning. Specifically, we learn a plug-and-play feature extractor to extract longitudinal-consistent anatomical representations by meta-feature learning and a well-initialized task head for fine-tuning by meta-initialization learning. Besides, two class-aware regularizations are proposed to encourage longitudinal consistency. Experimental results on the iSeg2019 and ADNI datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Our code is available at https://github.com/ladderlab-xjtu/DuMeta.
Knowledge-intensive tasks (e.g., open-domain question answering (QA)) require a substantial amount of factual knowledge and often rely on external information for assistance. Recently, large language models (LLMs) (e.g., ChatGPT), have demonstrated impressive prowess in solving a wide range of tasks with world knowledge, including knowledge-intensive tasks. However, it remains unclear how well LLMs are able to perceive their factual knowledge boundaries, particularly how they behave when incorporating retrieval augmentation. In this study, we present an initial analysis of the factual knowledge boundaries of LLMs and how retrieval augmentation affects LLMs on open-domain QA. Specially, we focus on three primary research questions and analyze them by examining QA performance, priori judgement and posteriori judgement of LLMs. We show evidence that LLMs possess unwavering confidence in their capabilities to respond to questions and the accuracy of their responses. Furthermore, retrieval augmentation proves to be an effective approach in enhancing LLMs' awareness of knowledge boundaries, thereby improving their judgemental abilities. Additionally, we also find that LLMs have a propensity to rely on the provided retrieval results when formulating answers, while the quality of these results significantly impacts their reliance. The code to reproduce this work is available at https://github.com/RUCAIBox/LLM-Knowledge-Boundary.
Multilingual sentence representations are the foundation for similarity-based bitext mining, which is crucial for scaling multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) system to more languages. In this paper, we introduce MuSR: a one-for-all Multilingual Sentence Representation model that supports more than 220 languages. Leveraging billions of English-centric parallel corpora, we train a multilingual Transformer encoder, coupled with an auxiliary Transformer decoder, by adopting a multilingual NMT framework with CrossConST, a cross-lingual consistency regularization technique proposed in Gao et al. (2023). Experimental results on multilingual similarity search and bitext mining tasks show the effectiveness of our approach. Specifically, MuSR achieves superior performance over LASER3 (Heffernan et al., 2022) which consists of 148 independent multilingual sentence encoders.
Recently, model-based retrieval has emerged as a new paradigm in text retrieval that discards the index in the traditional retrieval model and instead memorizes the candidate corpora using model parameters. This design employs a sequence-to-sequence paradigm to generate document identifiers, which enables the complete capture of the relevance between queries and documents and simplifies the classic indexretrieval-rerank pipeline. Despite its attractive qualities, there remain several major challenges in model-based retrieval, including the discrepancy between pre-training and fine-tuning, and the discrepancy between training and inference. To deal with the above challenges, we propose a novel two-stage model-based retrieval approach called TOME, which makes two major technical contributions, including the utilization of tokenized URLs as identifiers and the design of a two-stage generation architecture. We also propose a number of training strategies to deal with the training difficulty as the corpus size increases. Extensive experiments and analysis on MS MARCO and Natural Questions demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, and we investigate the scaling laws of TOME by examining various influencing factors.
The multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) model has a promising capability of zero-shot translation, where it could directly translate between language pairs unseen during training. For good transfer performance from supervised directions to zero-shot directions, the multilingual NMT model is expected to learn universal representations across different languages. This paper introduces a cross-lingual consistency regularization, CrossConST, to bridge the representation gap among different languages and boost zero-shot translation performance. The theoretical analysis shows that CrossConST implicitly maximizes the probability distribution for zero-shot translation, and the experimental results on both low-resource and high-resource benchmarks show that CrossConST consistently improves the translation performance. The experimental analysis also proves that CrossConST could close the sentence representation gap and better align the representation space. Given the universality and simplicity of CrossConST, we believe it can serve as a strong baseline for future multilingual NMT research.
MRI and PET are crucial diagnostic tools for brain diseases, as they provide complementary information on brain structure and function. However, PET scanning is costly and involves radioactive exposure, resulting in a lack of PET. Moreover, simultaneous PET and MRI at ultra-high-field are currently hardly infeasible. Ultra-high-field imaging has unquestionably proven valuable in both clinical and academic settings, especially in the field of cognitive neuroimaging. These motivate us to propose a method for synthetic PET from high-filed MRI and ultra-high-field MRI. From a statistical perspective, the joint probability distribution (JPD) is the most direct and fundamental means of portraying the correlation between PET and MRI. This paper proposes a novel joint diffusion attention model which has the joint probability distribution and attention strategy, named JDAM. JDAM has a diffusion process and a sampling process. The diffusion process involves the gradual diffusion of PET to Gaussian noise by adding Gaussian noise, while MRI remains fixed. JPD of MRI and noise-added PET was learned in the diffusion process. The sampling process is a predictor-corrector. PET images were generated from MRI by JPD of MRI and noise-added PET. The predictor is a reverse diffusion process and the corrector is Langevin dynamics. Experimental results on the public Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art CycleGAN for high-field MRI (3T MRI). Finally, synthetic PET images from the ultra-high-field (5T MRI and 7T MRI) be attempted, providing a possibility for ultra-high-field PET-MRI imaging.