We introduce a new task -- language-driven video inpainting, which uses natural language instructions to guide the inpainting process. This approach overcomes the limitations of traditional video inpainting methods that depend on manually labeled binary masks, a process often tedious and labor-intensive. We present the Remove Objects from Videos by Instructions (ROVI) dataset, containing 5,650 videos and 9,091 inpainting results, to support training and evaluation for this task. We also propose a novel diffusion-based language-driven video inpainting framework, the first end-to-end baseline for this task, integrating Multimodal Large Language Models to understand and execute complex language-based inpainting requests effectively. Our comprehensive results showcase the dataset's versatility and the model's effectiveness in various language-instructed inpainting scenarios. We will make datasets, code, and models publicly available.
Though diffusion-based video generation has witnessed rapid progress, the inference results of existing models still exhibit unsatisfactory temporal consistency and unnatural dynamics. In this paper, we delve deep into the noise initialization of video diffusion models, and discover an implicit training-inference gap that attributes to the unsatisfactory inference quality. Our key findings are: 1) the spatial-temporal frequency distribution of the initial latent at inference is intrinsically different from that for training, and 2) the denoising process is significantly influenced by the low-frequency components of the initial noise. Motivated by these observations, we propose a concise yet effective inference sampling strategy, FreeInit, which significantly improves temporal consistency of videos generated by diffusion models. Through iteratively refining the spatial-temporal low-frequency components of the initial latent during inference, FreeInit is able to compensate the initialization gap between training and inference, thus effectively improving the subject appearance and temporal consistency of generation results. Extensive experiments demonstrate that FreeInit consistently enhances the generation results of various text-to-video generation models without additional training.
Text-driven video generation witnesses rapid progress. However, merely using text prompts is not enough to depict the desired subject appearance that accurately aligns with users' intents, especially for customized content creation. In this paper, we study the task of video generation with image prompts, which provide more accurate and direct content control beyond the text prompts. Specifically, we propose a feed-forward framework VideoBooth, with two dedicated designs: 1) We propose to embed image prompts in a coarse-to-fine manner. Coarse visual embeddings from image encoder provide high-level encodings of image prompts, while fine visual embeddings from the proposed attention injection module provide multi-scale and detailed encoding of image prompts. These two complementary embeddings can faithfully capture the desired appearance. 2) In the attention injection module at fine level, multi-scale image prompts are fed into different cross-frame attention layers as additional keys and values. This extra spatial information refines the details in the first frame and then it is propagated to the remaining frames, which maintains temporal consistency. Extensive experiments demonstrate that VideoBooth achieves state-of-the-art performance in generating customized high-quality videos with subjects specified in image prompts. Notably, VideoBooth is a generalizable framework where a single model works for a wide range of image prompts with feed-forward pass.
Video generation has witnessed significant advancements, yet evaluating these models remains a challenge. A comprehensive evaluation benchmark for video generation is indispensable for two reasons: 1) Existing metrics do not fully align with human perceptions; 2) An ideal evaluation system should provide insights to inform future developments of video generation. To this end, we present VBench, a comprehensive benchmark suite that dissects "video generation quality" into specific, hierarchical, and disentangled dimensions, each with tailored prompts and evaluation methods. VBench has three appealing properties: 1) Comprehensive Dimensions: VBench comprises 16 dimensions in video generation (e.g., subject identity inconsistency, motion smoothness, temporal flickering, and spatial relationship, etc). The evaluation metrics with fine-grained levels reveal individual models' strengths and weaknesses. 2) Human Alignment: We also provide a dataset of human preference annotations to validate our benchmarks' alignment with human perception, for each evaluation dimension respectively. 3) Valuable Insights: We look into current models' ability across various evaluation dimensions, and various content types. We also investigate the gaps between video and image generation models. We will open-source VBench, including all prompts, evaluation methods, generated videos, and human preference annotations, and also include more video generation models in VBench to drive forward the field of video generation.
This work aims to learn a high-quality text-to-video (T2V) generative model by leveraging a pre-trained text-to-image (T2I) model as a basis. It is a highly desirable yet challenging task to simultaneously a) accomplish the synthesis of visually realistic and temporally coherent videos while b) preserving the strong creative generation nature of the pre-trained T2I model. To this end, we propose LaVie, an integrated video generation framework that operates on cascaded video latent diffusion models, comprising a base T2V model, a temporal interpolation model, and a video super-resolution model. Our key insights are two-fold: 1) We reveal that the incorporation of simple temporal self-attentions, coupled with rotary positional encoding, adequately captures the temporal correlations inherent in video data. 2) Additionally, we validate that the process of joint image-video fine-tuning plays a pivotal role in producing high-quality and creative outcomes. To enhance the performance of LaVie, we contribute a comprehensive and diverse video dataset named Vimeo25M, consisting of 25 million text-video pairs that prioritize quality, diversity, and aesthetic appeal. Extensive experiments demonstrate that LaVie achieves state-of-the-art performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, we showcase the versatility of pre-trained LaVie models in various long video generation and personalized video synthesis applications.
In this paper, we uncover the untapped potential of diffusion U-Net, which serves as a "free lunch" that substantially improves the generation quality on the fly. We initially investigate the key contributions of the U-Net architecture to the denoising process and identify that its main backbone primarily contributes to denoising, whereas its skip connections mainly introduce high-frequency features into the decoder module, causing the network to overlook the backbone semantics. Capitalizing on this discovery, we propose a simple yet effective method-termed "FreeU" - that enhances generation quality without additional training or finetuning. Our key insight is to strategically re-weight the contributions sourced from the U-Net's skip connections and backbone feature maps, to leverage the strengths of both components of the U-Net architecture. Promising results on image and video generation tasks demonstrate that our FreeU can be readily integrated to existing diffusion models, e.g., Stable Diffusion, DreamBooth, ModelScope, Rerender and ReVersion, to improve the generation quality with only a few lines of code. All you need is to adjust two scaling factors during inference. Project page: https://chenyangsi.top/FreeU/.
Existing skeleton-based action recognition methods typically follow a centralized learning paradigm, which can pose privacy concerns when exposing human-related videos. Federated Learning (FL) has attracted much attention due to its outstanding advantages in privacy-preserving. However, directly applying FL approaches to skeleton videos suffers from unstable training. In this paper, we investigate and discover that the heterogeneous human topology graph structure is the crucial factor hindering training stability. To address this limitation, we pioneer a novel Federated Skeleton-based Action Recognition (FSAR) paradigm, which enables the construction of a globally generalized model without accessing local sensitive data. Specifically, we introduce an Adaptive Topology Structure (ATS), separating generalization and personalization by learning a domain-invariant topology shared across clients and a domain-specific topology decoupled from global model aggregation.Furthermore, we explore Multi-grain Knowledge Distillation (MKD) to mitigate the discrepancy between clients and server caused by distinct updating patterns through aligning shallow block-wise motion features. Extensive experiments on multiple datasets demonstrate that FSAR outperforms state-of-the-art FL-based methods while inherently protecting privacy.
Few-shot learning is a challenging problem since only a few examples are provided to recognize a new class. Several recent studies exploit additional semantic information, e.g. text embeddings of class names, to address the issue of rare samples through combining semantic prototypes with visual prototypes. However, these methods still suffer from the spurious visual features learned from the rare support samples, resulting in limited benefits. In this paper, we propose a novel Semantic Prompt (SP) approach for few-shot learning. Instead of the naive exploitation of semantic information for remedying classifiers, we explore leveraging semantic information as prompts to tune the visual feature extraction network adaptively. Specifically, we design two complementary mechanisms to insert semantic prompts into the feature extractor: one is to enable the interaction between semantic prompts and patch embeddings along the spatial dimension via self-attention, another is to supplement visual features with the transformed semantic prompts along the channel dimension. By combining these two mechanisms, the feature extractor presents a better ability to attend to the class-specific features and obtains more generalized image representations with merely a few support samples. Through extensive experiments on four datasets, the proposed approach achieves promising results, improving the 1-shot learning accuracy by 3.67% on average.
MetaFormer, the abstracted architecture of Transformer, has been found to play a significant role in achieving competitive performance. In this paper, we further explore the capacity of MetaFormer, again, without focusing on token mixer design: we introduce several baseline models under MetaFormer using the most basic or common mixers, and summarize our observations as follows: (1) MetaFormer ensures solid lower bound of performance. By merely adopting identity mapping as the token mixer, the MetaFormer model, termed IdentityFormer, achieves >80% accuracy on ImageNet-1K. (2) MetaFormer works well with arbitrary token mixers. When specifying the token mixer as even a random matrix to mix tokens, the resulting model RandFormer yields an accuracy of >81%, outperforming IdentityFormer. Rest assured of MetaFormer's results when new token mixers are adopted. (3) MetaFormer effortlessly offers state-of-the-art results. With just conventional token mixers dated back five years ago, the models instantiated from MetaFormer already beat state of the art. (a) ConvFormer outperforms ConvNeXt. Taking the common depthwise separable convolutions as the token mixer, the model termed ConvFormer, which can be regarded as pure CNNs, outperforms the strong CNN model ConvNeXt. (b) CAFormer sets new record on ImageNet-1K. By simply applying depthwise separable convolutions as token mixer in the bottom stages and vanilla self-attention in the top stages, the resulting model CAFormer sets a new record on ImageNet-1K: it achieves an accuracy of 85.5% at 224x224 resolution, under normal supervised training without external data or distillation. In our expedition to probe MetaFormer, we also find that a new activation, StarReLU, reduces 71% FLOPs of activation compared with GELU yet achieves better performance. We expect StarReLU to find great potential in MetaFormer-like models alongside other neural networks.
Conventional centralised deep learning paradigms are not feasible when data from different sources cannot be shared due to data privacy or transmission limitation. To resolve this problem, federated learning has been introduced to transfer knowledge across multiple sources (clients) with non-shared data while optimising a globally generalised central model (server). Existing federated learning paradigms mostly focus on transferring holistic high-level knowledge (such as class) across models, which are closely related to specific objects of interest so may suffer from inverse attack. In contrast, in this work, we consider transferring mid-level semantic knowledge (such as attribute) which is not sensitive to specific objects of interest and therefore is more privacy-preserving and scalable. To this end, we formulate a new Federated Zero-Shot Learning (FZSL) paradigm to learn mid-level semantic knowledge at multiple local clients with non-shared local data and cumulatively aggregate a globally generalised central model for deployment. To improve model discriminative ability, we propose to explore semantic knowledge augmentation from external knowledge for enriching the mid-level semantic space in FZSL. Extensive experiments on five zeroshot learning benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of our approach for optimising a generalisable federated learning model with mid-level semantic knowledge transfer.