In this work, we study the issue of reward hacking on the response length, a challenge emerging in Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) on LLMs. A well-formatted, verbose but less helpful response from the LLMs can often deceive LLMs or even human evaluators to achieve high scores. The same issue also holds for some reward models in RL. To address the challenges in both training and evaluation, we establish a more reliable evaluation protocol for comparing different training configurations, which inspects the trade-off between LLM evaluation score and response length obtained by varying training hyperparameters. Based on this evaluation, we conduct large-scale studies, where the results shed insights into the efficacy of hyperparameters and tricks used in RL on mitigating length bias. We further propose to improve the reward model by jointly training two linear heads on shared feature representations to predict the rewards, one trained to correlate with length, and the other trained to decorrelate with length and therefore focus more on the actual content. We then discard the length head in RL to prevent reward hacking on length. Experiments demonstrate that our approach almost eliminates the reward correlation with length, and improves the obtained policy by a significant margin.
Augmenting large language models (LLMs) to understand audio -- including non-speech sounds and non-verbal speech -- is critically important for diverse real-world applications of LLMs. In this paper, we propose Audio Flamingo, a novel audio language model with 1) strong audio understanding abilities, 2) the ability to quickly adapt to unseen tasks via in-context learning and retrieval, and 3) strong multi-turn dialogue abilities. We introduce a series of training techniques, architecture design, and data strategies to enhance our model with these abilities. Extensive evaluations across various audio understanding tasks confirm the efficacy of our method, setting new state-of-the-art benchmarks.
In this paper, we describe the TTS models developed by NVIDIA for the MMITS-VC (Multi-speaker, Multi-lingual Indic TTS with Voice Cloning) 2024 Challenge. In Tracks 1 and 2, we utilize RAD-MMM to perform few-shot TTS by training additionally on 5 minutes of target speaker data. In Track 3, we utilize P-Flow to perform zero-shot TTS by training on the challenge dataset as well as external datasets. We use HiFi-GAN vocoders for all submissions. RAD-MMM performs competitively on Tracks 1 and 2, while P-Flow ranks first on Track 3, with mean opinion score (MOS) 4.4 and speaker similarity score (SMOS) of 3.62.
In this work, we introduce ChatQA, a family of conversational question answering (QA) models that obtain GPT-4 level accuracies. Specifically, we propose a two-stage instruction tuning method that can significantly improve the zero-shot conversational QA results from large language models (LLMs). To handle retrieval-augmented generation in conversational QA, we fine-tune a dense retriever on a multi-turn QA dataset, which provides comparable results to using the state-of-the-art query rewriting model while largely reducing deployment cost. Notably, our ChatQA-70B can outperform GPT-4 in terms of average score on 10 conversational QA datasets (54.14 vs. 53.90), without relying on any synthetic data from OpenAI GPT models.
ChipNeMo aims to explore the applications of large language models (LLMs) for industrial chip design. Instead of directly deploying off-the-shelf commercial or open-source LLMs, we instead adopt the following domain adaptation techniques: custom tokenizers, domain-adaptive continued pretraining, supervised fine-tuning (SFT) with domain-specific instructions, and domain-adapted retrieval models. We evaluate these methods on three selected LLM applications for chip design: an engineering assistant chatbot, EDA script generation, and bug summarization and analysis. Our results show that these domain adaptation techniques enable significant LLM performance improvements over general-purpose base models across the three evaluated applications, enabling up to 5x model size reduction with similar or better performance on a range of design tasks. Our findings also indicate that there's still room for improvement between our current results and ideal outcomes. We believe that further investigation of domain-adapted LLM approaches will help close this gap in the future.
Pretraining auto-regressive large language models (LLMs) with retrieval demonstrates better perplexity and factual accuracy by leveraging external databases. However, the size of existing pretrained retrieval-augmented LLM is still limited (e.g., Retro has 7.5B parameters), which limits the effectiveness of instruction tuning and zero-shot generalization. In this work, we introduce Retro 48B, the largest LLM pretrained with retrieval before instruction tuning. Specifically, we continue to pretrain the 43B GPT model on additional 100 billion tokens using the Retro augmentation method by retrieving from 1.2 trillion tokens. The obtained foundation model, Retro 48B, largely outperforms the original 43B GPT in terms of perplexity. After instruction tuning on Retro, InstructRetro demonstrates significant improvement over the instruction tuned GPT on zero-shot question answering (QA) tasks. Specifically, the average improvement of InstructRetro is 7% over its GPT counterpart across 8 short-form QA tasks, and 10% over GPT across 4 challenging long-form QA tasks. Surprisingly, we find that one can ablate the encoder from InstructRetro architecture and directly use its decoder backbone, while achieving comparable results. We hypothesize that pretraining with retrieval makes its decoder good at incorporating context for QA. Our results highlights the promising direction to obtain a better GPT decoder for QA through continued pretraining with retrieval before instruction tuning.
Extending the context window of large language models (LLMs) is getting popular recently, while the solution of augmenting LLMs with retrieval has existed for years. The natural questions are: i) Retrieval-augmentation versus long context window, which one is better for downstream tasks? ii) Can both methods be combined to get the best of both worlds? In this work, we answer these questions by studying both solutions using two state-of-the-art pretrained LLMs, i.e., a proprietary 43B GPT and LLaMA2-70B. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that LLM with 4K context window using simple retrieval-augmentation at generation can achieve comparable performance to finetuned LLM with 16K context window via positional interpolation on long context tasks, while taking much less computation. More importantly, we demonstrate that retrieval can significantly improve the performance of LLMs regardless of their extended context window sizes. Our best model, retrieval-augmented LLaMA2-70B with 32K context window, outperforms GPT-3.5-turbo-16k and Davinci003 in terms of average score on seven long context tasks including question answering and query-based summarization. It also outperforms its non-retrieval LLaMA2-70B-32k baseline by a margin, while being much faster at generation. Our study provides general insights on the choice of retrieval-augmentation versus long context extension of LLM for practitioners.
In this work, we present CleanUNet 2, a speech denoising model that combines the advantages of waveform denoiser and spectrogram denoiser and achieves the best of both worlds. CleanUNet 2 uses a two-stage framework inspired by popular speech synthesis methods that consist of a waveform model and a spectrogram model. Specifically, CleanUNet 2 builds upon CleanUNet, the state-of-the-art waveform denoiser, and further boosts its performance by taking predicted spectrograms from a spectrogram denoiser as the input. We demonstrate that CleanUNet 2 outperforms previous methods in terms of various objective and subjective evaluations.
* Proc. INTERSPEECH 2023, pages 790--794 * INTERSPEECH 2023
In this paper, we investigate the in-context learning ability of retrieval-augmented encoder-decoder language models. We first conduct a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art ATLAS model and identify its limitations in in-context learning, primarily due to a mismatch between pretraining and testing, as well as a restricted context length. To address these issues, we propose RAVEN, a model that combines retrieval-augmented masked language modeling and prefix language modeling. We further introduce Fusion-in-Context Learning to enhance the few-shot performance by enabling the model to leverage more in-context examples without requiring additional training or model modifications. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that RAVEN significantly outperforms ATLAS and achieves results comparable to the most advanced language models in certain scenarios, despite having substantially fewer parameters. Our work underscores the potential of retrieval-augmented encoder-decoder language models for in-context learning and encourages further research in this direction.