Differential Neural Architecture Search (NAS) requires all layer choices to be held in memory simultaneously; this limits the size of both search space and final architecture. In contrast, Probabilistic NAS, such as PARSEC, learns a distribution over high-performing architectures, and uses only as much memory as needed to train a single model. Nevertheless, it needs to sample many architectures, making it computationally expensive for searching in an extensive space. To solve these problems, we propose a sampling method adaptive to the distribution entropy, drawing more samples to encourage explorations at the beginning, and reducing samples as learning proceeds. Furthermore, to search fast in the multi-variate space, we propose a coarse-to-fine strategy by using a factorized distribution at the beginning which can reduce the number of architecture parameters by over an order of magnitude.We call this method Fast Probabilistic NAS (FP-NAS). Compared with PARSEC, it can sample 64% fewer architectures and search 2.1x faster. Compared with FBNetV2, FP-NAS is 1.9x - 3.6x faster, and the searched models outperform FBNetV2 models on ImageNet. FP-NAS allows us to expand the giant FBNetV2 space to be wider (i.e. larger channel choices) and deeper (i.e. more blocks), while adding Split-Attention block and enabling the search over the number of splits. When searching a model of size 0.4G FLOPS, FP-NAS is 132x faster than EfficientNet, and the searched FP-NAS-L0 model outperforms EfficientNet-B0 by 0.6% accuracy. Without using any architecture surrogate or scaling tricks, we directly search large models up to 1.0G FLOPS. Our FP-NAS-L2 model with simple distillation outperforms BigNAS-XL with advanced inplace distillation by 0.7% accuracy with less FLOPS.
Large-scale labeled training datasets have enabled deep neural networks to excel across a wide range of benchmark vision tasks. However, in many applications, it is prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to obtain large quantities of labeled data. To cope with limited labeled training data, many have attempted to directly apply models trained on a large-scale labeled source domain to another sparsely labeled or unlabeled target domain. Unfortunately, direct transfer across domains often performs poorly due to the presence of domain shift or dataset bias. Domain adaptation is a machine learning paradigm that aims to learn a model from a source domain that can perform well on a different (but related) target domain. In this paper, we review the latest single-source deep unsupervised domain adaptation methods focused on visual tasks and discuss new perspectives for future research. We begin with the definitions of different domain adaptation strategies and the descriptions of existing benchmark datasets. We then summarize and compare different categories of single-source unsupervised domain adaptation methods, including discrepancy-based methods, adversarial discriminative methods, adversarial generative methods, and self-supervision-based methods. Finally, we discuss future research directions with challenges and possible solutions.
Due to its robust and precise distance measurements, LiDAR plays an important role in scene understanding for autonomous driving. Training deep neural networks (DNNs) on LiDAR data requires large-scale point-wise annotations, which are time-consuming and expensive to obtain. Instead, simulation-to-real domain adaptation (SRDA) trains a DNN using unlimited synthetic data with automatically generated labels and transfers the learned model to real scenarios. Existing SRDA methods for LiDAR point cloud segmentation mainly employ a multi-stage pipeline and focus on feature-level alignment. They require prior knowledge of real-world statistics and ignore the pixel-level dropout noise gap and the spatial feature gap between different domains. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end framework, named ePointDA, to address the above issues. Specifically, ePointDA consists of three components: self-supervised dropout noise rendering, statistics-invariant and spatially-adaptive feature alignment, and transferable segmentation learning. The joint optimization enables ePointDA to bridge the domain shift at the pixel-level by explicitly rendering dropout noise for synthetic LiDAR and at the feature-level by spatially aligning the features between different domains, without requiring the real-world statistics. Extensive experiments adapting from synthetic GTA-LiDAR to real KITTI and SemanticKITTI demonstrate the superiority of ePointDA for LiDAR point cloud segmentation.
Computer vision has achieved great success using standardized image representations -- pixel arrays, and the corresponding deep learning operators -- convolutions. In this work, we challenge this paradigm: we instead (a) represent images as a set of visual tokens and (b) apply visual transformers to find relationships between visual semantic concepts. Given an input image, we dynamically extract a set of visual tokens from the image to obtain a compact representation for high-level semantics. We then use visual transformers to operate over the visual tokens to densely model relationships between them. We find that this paradigm of token-based image representation and processing drastically outperforms its convolutional counterparts on image classification and semantic segmentation. To demonstrate the power of this approach on ImageNet classification, we use ResNet as a convenient baseline and use visual transformers to replace the last stage of convolutions. This reduces the stage's MACs by up to 6.9x, while attaining up to 4.53 points higher top-1 accuracy. For semantic segmentation, we use a visual-transformer-based FPN (VT-FPN) module to replace a convolution-based FPN, saving 6.5x fewer MACs while achieving up to 0.35 points higher mIoU on LIP and COCO-stuff.
Deploying deep learning models on embedded systems for computer vision tasks has been challenging due to limited compute resources and strict energy budgets. The majority of existing work focuses on accelerating image classification, while other fundamental vision problems, such as object detection, have not been adequately addressed. Compared with image classification, detection problems are more sensitive to the spatial variance of objects, and therefore, require specialized convolutions to aggregate spatial information. To address this, recent work proposes dynamic deformable convolution to augment regular convolutions. Regular convolutions process a fixed grid of pixels across all the spatial locations in an image, while dynamic deformable convolution may access arbitrary pixels in the image and the access pattern is input-dependent and varies per spatial location. These properties lead to inefficient memory accesses of inputs with existing hardware. In this work, we first investigate the overhead of the deformable convolution on embedded FPGA SoCs, and introduce a depthwise deformable convolution to reduce the total number of operations required. We then show the speed-accuracy tradeoffs for a set of algorithm modifications including irregular-access versus limited-range and fixed-shape. We evaluate these algorithmic changes with corresponding hardware optimizations. Results show a 1.36x and 9.76x speedup respectively for the full and depthwise deformable convolution on the embedded FPGA accelerator with minor accuracy loss on the object detection task. We then co-design an efficient network CoDeNet with the modified deformable convolution for object detection and quantize the network to 4-bit weights and 8-bit activations. Results show that our designs lie on the pareto-optimal front of the latency-accuracy tradeoff for the object detection task on embedded FPGAs
Neural Architecture Search (NAS) yields state-of-the-art neural networks that outperform their best manually-designed counterparts. However, previous NAS methods search for architectures under one training recipe (i.e., training hyperparameters), ignoring the significance of training recipes and overlooking superior architectures under other training recipes. Thus, they fail to find higher-accuracy architecture-recipe combinations. To address this oversight, we present JointNAS to search both (a) architectures and (b) their corresponding training recipes. To accomplish this, we introduce a neural acquisition function that scores architectures and training recipes jointly. Following pre-training on a proxy dataset, this acquisition function guides both coarse-grained and fine-grained searches to produce FBNetV3. FBNetV3 is a family of state-of-the-art compact ImageNet models, outperforming both automatically and manually-designed architectures. For example, FBNetV3 matches both EfficientNet and ResNeSt accuracy with 1.4x and 5.0x fewer FLOPs, respectively. Furthermore, the JointNAS-searched training recipe yields significant performance gains across different networks and tasks.