With the increasingly widespread adoption of AI in healthcare, maintaining the accuracy and reliability of AI models in clinical practice has become crucial. In this context, we introduce novel methods for monitoring the performance of radiology AI classification models in practice, addressing the challenges of obtaining real-time ground truth for performance monitoring. We propose two metrics - predictive divergence and temporal stability - to be used for preemptive alerts of AI performance changes. Predictive divergence, measured using Kullback-Leibler and Jensen-Shannon divergences, evaluates model accuracy by comparing predictions with those of two supplementary models. Temporal stability is assessed through a comparison of current predictions against historical moving averages, identifying potential model decay or data drift. This approach was retrospectively validated using chest X-ray data from a single-center imaging clinic, demonstrating its effectiveness in maintaining AI model reliability. By providing continuous, real-time insights into model performance, our system ensures the safe and effective use of AI in clinical decision-making, paving the way for more robust AI integration in healthcare
Ideally, we would place a robot in a real-world environment and leave it there improving on its own by gathering more experience autonomously. However, algorithms for autonomous robotic learning have been challenging to realize in the real world. While this has often been attributed to the challenge of sample complexity, even sample-efficient techniques are hampered by two major challenges - the difficulty of providing well "shaped" rewards, and the difficulty of continual reset-free training. In this work, we describe a system for real-world reinforcement learning that enables agents to show continual improvement by training directly in the real world without requiring painstaking effort to hand-design reward functions or reset mechanisms. Our system leverages occasional non-expert human-in-the-loop feedback from remote users to learn informative distance functions to guide exploration while leveraging a simple self-supervised learning algorithm for goal-directed policy learning. We show that in the absence of resets, it is particularly important to account for the current "reachability" of the exploration policy when deciding which regions of the space to explore. Based on this insight, we instantiate a practical learning system - GEAR, which enables robots to simply be placed in real-world environments and left to train autonomously without interruption. The system streams robot experience to a web interface only requiring occasional asynchronous feedback from remote, crowdsourced, non-expert humans in the form of binary comparative feedback. We evaluate this system on a suite of robotic tasks in simulation and demonstrate its effectiveness at learning behaviors both in simulation and the real world. Project website https://guided-exploration-autonomous-rl.github.io/GEAR/.
Off-policy dynamic programming (DP) techniques such as $Q$-learning have proven to be an important technique for solving sequential decision-making problems. However, in the presence of function approximation such algorithms are not guaranteed to converge, often diverging due to the absence of Bellman-completeness in the function classes considered, a crucial condition for the success of DP-based methods. In this paper, we show how off-policy learning techniques based on return-conditioned supervised learning (RCSL) are able to circumvent these challenges of Bellman completeness, converging under significantly more relaxed assumptions inherited from supervised learning. We prove there exists a natural environment in which if one uses two-layer multilayer perceptron as the function approximator, the layer width needs to grow linearly with the state space size to satisfy Bellman-completeness while a constant layer width is enough for RCSL. These findings take a step towards explaining the superior empirical performance of RCSL methods compared to DP-based methods in environments with near-optimal datasets. Furthermore, in order to learn from sub-optimal datasets, we propose a simple framework called MBRCSL, granting RCSL methods the ability of dynamic programming to stitch together segments from distinct trajectories. MBRCSL leverages learned dynamics models and forward sampling to accomplish trajectory stitching while avoiding the need for Bellman completeness that plagues all dynamic programming algorithms. We propose both theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation to back these claims, outperforming state-of-the-art model-free and model-based offline RL algorithms across several simulated robotics problems.
We present a new technique to enhance the robustness of imitation learning methods by generating corrective data to account for compounding errors and disturbances. While existing methods rely on interactive expert labeling, additional offline datasets, or domain-specific invariances, our approach requires minimal additional assumptions beyond access to expert data. The key insight is to leverage local continuity in the environment dynamics to generate corrective labels. Our method first constructs a dynamics model from the expert demonstration, encouraging local Lipschitz continuity in the learned model. In locally continuous regions, this model allows us to generate corrective labels within the neighborhood of the demonstrations but beyond the actual set of states and actions in the dataset. Training on this augmented data enhances the agent's ability to recover from perturbations and deal with compounding errors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our generated labels through experiments in a variety of robotics domains in simulation that have distinct forms of continuity and discontinuity, including classic control problems, drone flying, navigation with high-dimensional sensor observations, legged locomotion, and tabletop manipulation.
Real-world robotic tasks stretch over extended horizons and encompass multiple stages. Learning long-horizon manipulation tasks, however, is a long-standing challenge, and demands decomposing the overarching task into several manageable subtasks to facilitate policy learning and generalization to unseen tasks. Prior task decomposition methods require task-specific knowledge, are computationally intensive, and cannot readily be applied to new tasks. To address these shortcomings, we propose Universal Visual Decomposer (UVD), an off-the-shelf task decomposition method for visual long horizon manipulation using pre-trained visual representations designed for robotic control. At a high level, UVD discovers subgoals by detecting phase shifts in the embedding space of the pre-trained representation. Operating purely on visual demonstrations without auxiliary information, UVD can effectively extract visual subgoals embedded in the videos, while incurring zero additional training cost on top of standard visuomotor policy training. Goal-conditioned policies learned with UVD-discovered subgoals exhibit significantly improved compositional generalization at test time to unseen tasks. Furthermore, UVD-discovered subgoals can be used to construct goal-based reward shaping that jump-starts temporally extended exploration for reinforcement learning. We extensively evaluate UVD on both simulation and real-world tasks, and in all cases, UVD substantially outperforms baselines across imitation and reinforcement learning settings on in-domain and out-of-domain task sequences alike, validating the clear advantage of automated visual task decomposition within the simple, compact UVD framework.
Offline policy learning is aimed at learning decision-making policies using existing datasets of trajectories without collecting additional data. The primary motivation for using reinforcement learning (RL) instead of supervised learning techniques such as behavior cloning is to find a policy that achieves a higher average return than the trajectories constituting the dataset. However, we empirically find that when a dataset is dominated by suboptimal trajectories, state-of-the-art offline RL algorithms do not substantially improve over the average return of trajectories in the dataset. We argue this is due to an assumption made by current offline RL algorithms of staying close to the trajectories in the dataset. If the dataset primarily consists of sub-optimal trajectories, this assumption forces the policy to mimic the suboptimal actions. We overcome this issue by proposing a sampling strategy that enables the policy to only be constrained to ``good data" rather than all actions in the dataset (i.e., uniform sampling). We present a realization of the sampling strategy and an algorithm that can be used as a plug-and-play module in standard offline RL algorithms. Our evaluation demonstrates significant performance gains in 72 imbalanced datasets, D4RL dataset, and across three different offline RL algorithms. Code is available at https://github.com/Improbable-AI/dw-offline-rl.
We present RoboHive, a comprehensive software platform and ecosystem for research in the field of Robot Learning and Embodied Artificial Intelligence. Our platform encompasses a diverse range of pre-existing and novel environments, including dexterous manipulation with the Shadow Hand, whole-arm manipulation tasks with Franka and Fetch robots, quadruped locomotion, among others. Included environments are organized within and cover multiple domains such as hand manipulation, locomotion, multi-task, multi-agent, muscles, etc. In comparison to prior works, RoboHive offers a streamlined and unified task interface taking dependency on only a minimal set of well-maintained packages, features tasks with high physics fidelity and rich visual diversity, and supports common hardware drivers for real-world deployment. The unified interface of RoboHive offers a convenient and accessible abstraction for algorithmic research in imitation, reinforcement, multi-task, and hierarchical learning. Furthermore, RoboHive includes expert demonstrations and baseline results for most environments, providing a standard for benchmarking and comparisons. Details: https://sites.google.com/view/robohive
This paper studies Hoeffding's inequality for Markov chains under the generalized concentrability condition defined via integral probability metric (IPM). The generalized concentrability condition establishes a framework that interpolates and extends the existing hypotheses of Markov chain Hoeffding-type inequalities. The flexibility of our framework allows Hoeffding's inequality to be applied beyond the ergodic Markov chains in the traditional sense. We demonstrate the utility by applying our framework to several non-asymptotic analyses arising from the field of machine learning, including (i) a generalization bound for empirical risk minimization with Markovian samples, (ii) a finite sample guarantee for Ployak-Ruppert averaging of SGD, and (iii) a new regret bound for rested Markovian bandits with general state space.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have been shown to act like planners that can decompose high-level instructions into a sequence of executable instructions. However, current LLM-based planners are only able to operate with a fixed set of skills. We overcome this critical limitation and present a method for using LLM-based planners to query new skills and teach robots these skills in a data and time-efficient manner for rigid object manipulation. Our system can re-use newly acquired skills for future tasks, demonstrating the potential of open world and lifelong learning. We evaluate the proposed framework on multiple tasks in simulation and the real world. Videos are available at: https://sites.google.com/mit.edu/halp-robot-learning.