In this paper, we propose a new differentiable neural network alignment mechanism for text-dependent speaker verification which uses alignment models to produce a supervector representation of an utterance. Unlike previous works with similar approaches, we do not extract the embedding of an utterance from the mean reduction of the temporal dimension. Our system replaces the mean by a phrase alignment model to keep the temporal structure of each phrase which is relevant in this application since the phonetic information is part of the identity in the verification task. Moreover, we can apply a convolutional neural network as front-end, and thanks to the alignment process being differentiable, we can train the whole network to produce a supervector for each utterance which will be discriminative with respect to the speaker and the phrase simultaneously. As we show, this choice has the advantage that the supervector encodes the phrase and speaker information providing good performance in text-dependent speaker verification tasks. In this work, the process of verification is performed using a basic similarity metric, due to simplicity, compared to other more elaborate models that are commonly used. The new model using alignment to produce supervectors was tested on the RSR2015-Part I database for text-dependent speaker verification, providing competitive results compared to similar size networks using the mean to extract embeddings.
Remote sensing has proven to be a powerful tool for the monitoring of the Earth surface to improve our perception of our surroundings has led to unprecedented developments in sensor and information technologies. However, technologies for effective use of the data and for extracting useful information from the data of Remote sensing are still very limited since no single sensor combines the optimal spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. This paper briefly reviews the limitations of satellite remote sensing. Also, reviews on the problems of image fusion techniques. The conclusion of this, According to literature, the remote sensing is still the lack of software tools for effective information extraction from remote sensing data. The trade-off in spectral and spatial resolution will remain and new advanced data fusion approaches are needed to make optimal use of remote sensors for extract the most useful information.
Process mining has emerged as a way to analyze the behavior of an organization by extracting knowledge from event logs and by offering techniques to discover, monitor and enhance real processes. In the discovery of process models, retrieving a complex one, i.e., a hardly readable process model, can hinder the extraction of information. Even in well-structured process models, there is information that cannot be obtained with the current techniques. In this paper, we present WoMine, an algorithm to retrieve frequent behavioural patterns from the model. Our approach searches in process models extracting structures with sequences, selections, parallels and loops, which are frequently executed in the logs. This proposal has been validated with a set of process models, including some from BPI Challenges, and compared with the state of the art techniques. Experiments have validated that WoMine can find all types of patterns, extracting information that cannot be mined with the state of the art techniques.
Web images come in hand with valuable contextual information. Although this information has long been mined for various uses such as image annotation, clustering of images, inference of image semantic content, etc., insufficient attention has been given to address issues in mining this contextual information. In this paper, we propose a webpage segmentation algorithm targeting the extraction of web images and their contextual information based on their characteristics as they appear on webpages. We conducted a user study to obtain a human-labeled dataset to validate the effectiveness of our method and experiments demonstrated that our method can achieve better results compared to an existing segmentation algorithm.
Distributed acoustic sensors (DAS) are effective apparatus which are widely used in many application areas for recording signals of various events with very high spatial resolution along the optical fiber. To detect and recognize the recorded events properly, advanced signal processing algorithms with high computational demands are crucial. Convolutional neural networks are highly capable tools for extracting spatial information and very suitable for event recognition applications in DAS. Long-short term memory (LSTM) is an effective instrument for processing sequential data. In this study, we proposed a multi-input multi-output, two stage feature extraction methodology that combines the capabilities of these neural network architectures with transfer learning to classify vibrations applied to an optical fiber by a piezo transducer. First, we extracted the differential amplitude and phase information from the Phase-OTDR recordings and stored them in a temporal-spatial data matrix. Then, we used a state-of-the-art pre-trained CNN without dense layers as a feature extractor in the first stage. In the second stage, we used LSTMs to further analyze the features extracted by the CNN. Finally, we used a dense layer to classify the extracted features. To observe the effect of the utilized CNN architecture, we tested our model with five state-of-the art pre-trained models (VGG-16, ResNet-50, DenseNet-121, MobileNet and Inception-v3). The results show that using the VGG-16 architecture in our framework manages to obtain 100% classification accuracy in 50 trainings and got the best results on our Phase-OTDR dataset. Outcomes of this study indicate that the pre-trained CNNs combined with LSTM are very suitable for the analysis of differential amplitude and phase information, represented in a temporal spatial data matrix which is promising for event recognition operations in DAS applications.
Overall, the two main contributions of this work include the application of sentence simplification to association extraction as described above, and the use of distributional semantics for concept extraction. The proposed work on concept extraction amalgamates for the first time two diverse research areas -distributional semantics and information extraction. This approach renders all the advantages offered in other semi-supervised machine learning systems, and, unlike other proposed semi-supervised approaches, it can be used on top of different basic frameworks and algorithms. http://gradworks.umi.com/34/49/3449837.html
In this paper we describe ExtrAns, an answer extraction system. Answer extraction (AE) aims at retrieving those exact passages of a document that directly answer a given user question. AE is more ambitious than information retrieval and information extraction in that the retrieval results are phrases, not entire documents, and in that the queries may be arbitrarily specific. It is less ambitious than full-fledged question answering in that the answers are not generated from a knowledge base but looked up in the text of documents. The current version of ExtrAns is able to parse unedited Unix "man pages", and derive the logical form of their sentences. User queries are also translated into logical forms. A theorem prover then retrieves the relevant phrases, which are presented through selective highlighting in their context.
Although information extraction and coreference resolution appear together in many applications, most current systems perform them as ndependent steps. This paper describes an approach to integrated inference for extraction and coreference based on conditionally-trained undirected graphical models. We discuss the advantages of conditional probability training, and of a coreference model structure based on graph partitioning. On a data set of research paper citations, we show significant reduction in error by using extraction uncertainty to improve coreference citation matching accuracy, and using coreference to improve the accuracy of the extracted fields.
Unlike extractive summarization, abstractive summarization has to fuse different parts of the source text, which inclines to create fake facts. Our preliminary study reveals nearly 30% of the outputs from a state-of-the-art neural summarization system suffer from this problem. While previous abstractive summarization approaches usually focus on the improvement of informativeness, we argue that faithfulness is also a vital prerequisite for a practical abstractive summarization system. To avoid generating fake facts in a summary, we leverage open information extraction and dependency parse technologies to extract actual fact descriptions from the source text. The dual-attention sequence-to-sequence framework is then proposed to force the generation conditioned on both the source text and the extracted fact descriptions. Experiments on the Gigaword benchmark dataset demonstrate that our model can greatly reduce fake summaries by 80%. Notably, the fact descriptions also bring significant improvement on informativeness since they often condense the meaning of the source text.
Understanding key insights from full-text scholarly articles is essential as it enables us to determine interesting trends, give insight into the research and development, and build knowledge graphs. However, some of the interesting key insights are only available when considering full-text. Although researchers have made significant progress in information extraction from short documents, extraction of scientific entities from full-text scholarly literature remains a challenging problem. This work presents an automated End-to-end Research Entity Extractor called EneRex to extract technical facets such as dataset usage, objective task, method from full-text scholarly research articles. Additionally, we extracted three novel facets, e.g., links to source code, computing resources, programming language/libraries from full-text articles. We demonstrate how EneRex is able to extract key insights and trends from a large-scale dataset in the domain of computer science. We further test our pipeline on multiple datasets and found that the EneRex improves upon a state of the art model. We highlight how the existing datasets are limited in their capacity and how EneRex may fit into an existing knowledge graph. We also present a detailed discussion with pointers for future research. Our code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/DiscoveryAnalyticsCenter/EneRex.