Transformers generalize to novel compositions of structures and entities after being trained on a complex dataset, but easily overfit on datasets of insufficient complexity. We observe that when the training set is sufficiently complex, the model encodes sentences that have a common syntactic structure using a systematic attention pattern. Inspired by this observation, we propose SQ-Transformer (Structurally Quantized) that explicitly encourages systematicity in the embeddings and attention layers, even with a training set of low complexity. At the embedding level, we introduce Structure-oriented Vector Quantization (SoVQ) to cluster word embeddings into several classes of structurally equivalent entities. At the attention level, we devise the Systematic Attention Layer (SAL) and an alternative, Systematically Regularized Layer (SRL) that operate on the quantized word embeddings so that sentences of the same structure are encoded with invariant or similar attention patterns. Empirically, we show that SQ-Transformer achieves stronger compositional generalization than the vanilla Transformer on multiple low-complexity semantic parsing and machine translation datasets. In our analysis, we show that SoVQ indeed learns a syntactically clustered embedding space and SAL/SRL induces generalizable attention patterns, which lead to improved systematicity.
Recent diagnostic datasets on compositional generalization, such as SCAN (Lake and Baroni, 2018) and COGS (Kim and Linzen, 2020), expose severe problems in models trained from scratch on these datasets. However, in contrast to this poor performance, state-of-the-art models trained on larger and more general datasets show better generalization ability. In this work, to reconcile this inconsistency, we conduct an empirical analysis by training Transformer models on a variety of training sets with different data factors, including dataset scale, pattern complexity, example difficulty, etc. First, we show that increased dataset complexity can lead to better generalization behavior on multiple different generalization challenges. To further understand this improvement, we show two axes of the benefit from more complex datasets: they provide more diverse examples so compositional understanding becomes more effective, and they also prevent ungeneralizable memorization of the examples due to reduced example repetition frequency. Finally, we explore how training examples of different difficulty levels influence generalization differently. On synthetic datasets, simple examples invoke stronger compositionality than hard examples do. On larger-scale real language datasets, while hard examples become more important potentially to ensure decent data coverage, a balanced mixture of simple and hard examples manages to induce the strongest generalizability. The code and data for this work are available at https://github.com/owenzx/data4comp
We address the problem of photorealistic 3D face avatar synthesis from sparse images. Existing Parametric models for face avatar reconstruction struggle to generate details that originate from inputs. Meanwhile, although current NeRF-based avatar methods provide promising results for novel view synthesis, they fail to generalize well for unseen expressions. We improve from NeRF and propose a novel framework that, by leveraging the parametric 3DMM models, can reconstruct a high-fidelity drivable face avatar and successfully handle the unseen expressions. At the core of our implementation are structured displacement feature and semantic-aware learning module. Our structured displacement feature will introduce the motion prior as an additional constraints and help perform better for unseen expressions, by constructing displacement volume. Besides, the semantic-aware learning incorporates multi-level prior, e.g., semantic embedding, learnable latent code, to lift the performance to a higher level. Thorough experiments have been doen both quantitatively and qualitatively to demonstrate the design of our framework, and our method achieves much better results than the current state-of-the-arts.
The diffusion model has shown remarkable success in computer vision, but it remains unclear whether ODE-based probability flow or SDE-based diffusion models are superior and under what circumstances. Comparing the two is challenging due to dependencies on data distribution, score training, and other numerical factors. In this paper, we examine the problem mathematically by examining two limiting scenarios: the ODE case and the large diffusion case. We first introduce a pulse-shape error to perturb the score function and analyze error accumulation, with a generalization to arbitrary error. Our findings indicate that when the perturbation occurs at the end of the generative process, the ODE model outperforms the SDE model (with a large diffusion coefficient). However, when the perturbation occurs earlier, the SDE model outperforms the ODE model, and we demonstrate that the error of sample generation due to pulse-shape error can be exponentially suppressed as the diffusion term's magnitude increases to infinity. Numerical validation of this phenomenon is provided using toy models such as Gaussian, Gaussian mixture models, and Swiss roll. Finally, we experiment with MNIST and observe that varying the diffusion coefficient can improve sample quality even when the score function is not well trained.
Estimating human pose from video is a task that receives considerable attention due to its applicability in numerous 3D fields. The complexity of prior knowledge of human body movements poses a challenge to neural network models in the task of regressing keypoints. In this paper, we address this problem by incorporating motion prior in an adversarial way. Different from previous methods, we propose to decompose holistic motion prior to joint motion prior, making it easier for neural networks to learn from prior knowledge thereby boosting the performance on the task. We also utilize a novel regularization loss to balance accuracy and smoothness introduced by motion prior. Our method achieves 9\% lower PA-MPJPE and 29\% lower acceleration error than previous methods tested on 3DPW. The estimator proves its robustness by achieving impressive performance on in-the-wild dataset.
Universal Information Extraction (UIE) is an area of interest due to the challenges posed by varying targets, heterogeneous structures, and demand-specific schemas. However, previous works have only achieved limited success by unifying a few tasks, such as Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Relation Extraction (RE), which fall short of being authentic UIE models particularly when extracting other general schemas such as quadruples and quintuples. Additionally, these models used an implicit structural schema instructor, which could lead to incorrect links between types, hindering the model's generalization and performance in low-resource scenarios. In this paper, we redefine the authentic UIE with a formal formulation that encompasses almost all extraction schemas. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to introduce UIE for any kind of schemas. In addition, we propose RexUIE, which is a Recursive Method with Explicit Schema Instructor for UIE. To avoid interference between different types, we reset the position ids and attention mask matrices. RexUIE shows strong performance under both full-shot and few-shot settings and achieves State-of-the-Art results on the tasks of extracting complex schemas.
Multi-step reasoning ability is fundamental to many natural language tasks, yet it is unclear what constitutes a good reasoning chain and how to evaluate them. Most existing methods focus solely on whether the reasoning chain leads to the correct conclusion, but this answer-oriented view may confound the quality of reasoning with other spurious shortcuts to predict the answer. To bridge this gap, we evaluate reasoning chains by viewing them as informal proofs that derive the final answer. Specifically, we propose ReCEval (Reasoning Chain Evaluation), a framework that evaluates reasoning chains through two key properties: (1) correctness, i.e., each step makes a valid inference based on the information contained within the step, preceding steps, and input context, and (2) informativeness, i.e., each step provides new information that is helpful towards deriving the generated answer. We implement ReCEval using natural language inference models and information-theoretic measures. On multiple datasets, ReCEval is highly effective in identifying different types of errors, resulting in notable improvements compared to prior methods. We demonstrate that our informativeness metric captures the expected flow of information in high-quality reasoning chains and we also analyze the impact of previous steps on evaluating correctness and informativeness. Finally, we show that scoring reasoning chains based on ReCEval can improve downstream performance of reasoning tasks. Our code is publicly available at: https://github.com/archiki/ReCEval
In response to innovations in machine learning (ML) models, production workloads changed radically and rapidly. TPU v4 is the fifth Google domain specific architecture (DSA) and its third supercomputer for such ML models. Optical circuit switches (OCSes) dynamically reconfigure its interconnect topology to improve scale, availability, utilization, modularity, deployment, security, power, and performance; users can pick a twisted 3D torus topology if desired. Much cheaper, lower power, and faster than Infiniband, OCSes and underlying optical components are <5% of system cost and <3% of system power. Each TPU v4 includes SparseCores, dataflow processors that accelerate models that rely on embeddings by 5x-7x yet use only 5% of die area and power. Deployed since 2020, TPU v4 outperforms TPU v3 by 2.1x and improves performance/Watt by 2.7x. The TPU v4 supercomputer is 4x larger at 4096 chips and thus ~10x faster overall, which along with OCS flexibility helps large language models. For similar sized systems, it is ~4.3x-4.5x faster than the Graphcore IPU Bow and is 1.2x-1.7x faster and uses 1.3x-1.9x less power than the Nvidia A100. TPU v4s inside the energy-optimized warehouse scale computers of Google Cloud use ~3x less energy and produce ~20x less CO2e than contemporary DSAs in a typical on-premise data center.
* 15 pages; 16 figures; to be published at ISCA 2023 (the International
Symposium on Computer Architecture)
In this work, we propose a task called "Scene Style Text Editing (SSTE)", changing the text content as well as the text style of the source image while keeping the original text scene. Existing methods neglect to fine-grained adjust the style of the foreground text, such as its rotation angle, color, and font type. To tackle this task, we propose a quadruple framework named "QuadNet" to embed and adjust foreground text styles in the latent feature space. Specifically, QuadNet consists of four parts, namely background inpainting, style encoder, content encoder, and fusion generator. The background inpainting erases the source text content and recovers the appropriate background with a highly authentic texture. The style encoder extracts the style embedding of the foreground text. The content encoder provides target text representations in the latent feature space to implement the content edits. The fusion generator combines the information yielded from the mentioned parts and generates the rendered text images. Practically, our method is capable of performing promisingly on real-world datasets with merely string-level annotation. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to finely manipulate the foreground text content and style by deeply semantic editing in the latent feature space. Extensive experiments demonstrate that QuadNet has the ability to generate photo-realistic foreground text and avoid source text shadows in real-world scenes when editing text content.