Artificial Intelligence (AI) has witnessed rapid growth, especially in the subfields Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Learning (ML) and Computer Vision (CV). Keeping pace with this rapid progress poses a considerable challenge for researchers and professionals in the field. In this arXiv report, the second of its kind, which covers the period from January to September 2023, we aim to provide insights and analysis that help navigate these dynamic areas of AI. We accomplish this by 1) identifying the top-40 most cited papers from arXiv in the given period, comparing the current top-40 papers to the previous report, which covered the period January to June; 2) analyzing dataset characteristics and keyword popularity; 3) examining the global sectoral distribution of institutions to reveal differences in engagement across geographical areas. Our findings highlight the continued dominance of NLP: while only 16% of all submitted papers have NLP as primary category (more than 25% have CV and ML as primary category), 50% of the most cited papers have NLP as primary category, 90% of which target LLMs. Additionally, we show that i) the US dominates among both top-40 and top-9k papers, followed by China; ii) Europe clearly lags behind and is hardly represented in the top-40 most cited papers; iii) US industry is largely overrepresented in the top-40 most influential papers.
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) have significantly advanced the generation of highly realistic and expressive 3D scenes. However, the task of editing NeRF, particularly in terms of geometry modification, poses a significant challenge. This issue has obstructed NeRF's wider adoption across various applications. To tackle the problem of efficiently editing neural implicit fields, we introduce Neural Impostor, a hybrid representation incorporating an explicit tetrahedral mesh alongside a multigrid implicit field designated for each tetrahedron within the explicit mesh. Our framework bridges the explicit shape manipulation and the geometric editing of implicit fields by utilizing multigrid barycentric coordinate encoding, thus offering a pragmatic solution to deform, composite, and generate neural implicit fields while maintaining a complex volumetric appearance. Furthermore, we propose a comprehensive pipeline for editing neural implicit fields based on a set of explicit geometric editing operations. We show the robustness and adaptability of our system through diverse examples and experiments, including the editing of both synthetic objects and real captured data. Finally, we demonstrate the authoring process of a hybrid synthetic-captured object utilizing a variety of editing operations, underlining the transformative potential of Neural Impostor in the field of 3D content creation and manipulation.
* Accepted at Pacific Graphics 2023 and Computer Graphics Forum
Facade parsing stands as a pivotal computer vision task with far-reaching applications in areas like architecture, urban planning, and energy efficiency. Despite the recent success of deep learning-based methods in yielding impressive results on certain open-source datasets, their viability for real-world applications remains uncertain. Real-world scenarios are considerably more intricate, demanding greater computational efficiency. Existing datasets often fall short in representing these settings, and previous methods frequently rely on extra models to enhance accuracy, which requires much computation cost. In this paper, we introduce Comprehensive Facade Parsing (CFP), a dataset meticulously designed to encompass the intricacies of real-world facade parsing tasks. Comprising a total of 602 high-resolution street-view images, this dataset captures a diverse array of challenging scenarios, including sloping angles and densely clustered buildings, with painstakingly curated annotations for each image. We introduce a new pipeline known as Revision-based Transformer Facade Parsing (RTFP). This marks the pioneering utilization of Vision Transformers (ViT) in facade parsing, and our experimental results definitively substantiate its merit. We also design Line Acquisition, Filtering, and Revision (LAFR), an efficient yet accurate revision algorithm that can improve the segment result solely from simple line detection using prior knowledge of the facade. In ECP 2011, RueMonge 2014, and our CFP, we evaluate the superiority of our method.
Many of the most commonly explored natural language processing (NLP) information extraction tasks can be thought of as evaluations of declarative knowledge, or fact-based information extraction. Procedural knowledge extraction, i.e., breaking down a described process into a series of steps, has received much less attention, perhaps in part due to the lack of structured datasets that capture the knowledge extraction process from end-to-end. To address this unmet need, we present FlaMB\'e (Flow annotations for Multiverse Biological entities), a collection of expert-curated datasets across a series of complementary tasks that capture procedural knowledge in biomedical texts. This dataset is inspired by the observation that one ubiquitous source of procedural knowledge that is described as unstructured text is within academic papers describing their methodology. The workflows annotated in FlaMB\'e are from texts in the burgeoning field of single cell research, a research area that has become notorious for the number of software tools and complexity of workflows used. Additionally, FlaMB\'e provides, to our knowledge, the largest manually curated named entity recognition (NER) and disambiguation (NED) datasets for tissue/cell type, a fundamental biological entity that is critical for knowledge extraction in the biomedical research domain. Beyond providing a valuable dataset to enable further development of NLP models for procedural knowledge extraction, automating the process of workflow mining also has important implications for advancing reproducibility in biomedical research.
* Submitted to NeurIPS 2023 Datasets and Benchmarks Track
The rapid growth of information in the field of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly in the subfields of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML), presents a significant challenge for researchers and practitioners to keep pace with the latest developments. To address the problem of information overload, this report by the Natural Language Learning Group at Bielefeld University focuses on identifying the most popular papers on arXiv, with a specific emphasis on NLP and ML. The objective is to offer a quick guide to the most relevant and widely discussed research, aiding both newcomers and established researchers in staying abreast of current trends. In particular, we compile a list of the 40 most popular papers based on normalized citation counts from the first half of 2023. We observe the dominance of papers related to Large Language Models (LLMs) and specifically ChatGPT during the first half of 2023, with the latter showing signs of declining popularity more recently, however. Further, NLP related papers are the most influential (around 60\% of top papers) even though there are twice as many ML related papers in our data. Core issues investigated in the most heavily cited papers are: LLM efficiency, evaluation techniques, ethical considerations, embodied agents, and problem-solving with LLMs. Additionally, we examine the characteristics of top papers in comparison to others outside the top-40 list (noticing the top paper's focus on LLM related issues and higher number of co-authors) and analyze the citation distributions in our dataset, among others.
While summarization has been extensively researched in natural language processing (NLP), cross-lingual cross-temporal summarization (CLCTS) is a largely unexplored area that has the potential to improve cross-cultural accessibility, information sharing, and understanding. This paper comprehensively addresses the CLCTS task, including dataset creation, modeling, and evaluation. We build the first CLCTS corpus, leveraging historical fictive texts and Wikipedia summaries in English and German, and examine the effectiveness of popular transformer end-to-end models with different intermediate task finetuning tasks. Additionally, we explore the potential of ChatGPT for CLCTS as a summarizer and an evaluator. Overall, we report evaluations from humans, ChatGPT, and several recent automatic evaluation metrics where we find our intermediate task finetuned end-to-end models generate bad to moderate quality summaries; ChatGPT as a summarizer (without any finetuning) provides moderate to good quality outputs and as an evaluator correlates moderately with human evaluations though it is prone to giving lower scores. ChatGPT also seems to be very adept at normalizing historical text. We finally test ChatGPT in a scenario with adversarially attacked and unseen source documents and find that ChatGPT is better at omission and entity swap than negating against its prior knowledge.
Instructional videos are an important resource to learn procedural tasks from human demonstrations. However, the instruction steps in such videos are typically short and sparse, with most of the video being irrelevant to the procedure. This motivates the need to temporally localize the instruction steps in such videos, i.e. the task called key-step localization. Traditional methods for key-step localization require video-level human annotations and thus do not scale to large datasets. In this work, we tackle the problem with no human supervision and introduce StepFormer, a self-supervised model that discovers and localizes instruction steps in a video. StepFormer is a transformer decoder that attends to the video with learnable queries, and produces a sequence of slots capturing the key-steps in the video. We train our system on a large dataset of instructional videos, using their automatically-generated subtitles as the only source of supervision. In particular, we supervise our system with a sequence of text narrations using an order-aware loss function that filters out irrelevant phrases. We show that our model outperforms all previous unsupervised and weakly-supervised approaches on step detection and localization by a large margin on three challenging benchmarks. Moreover, our model demonstrates an emergent property to solve zero-shot multi-step localization and outperforms all relevant baselines at this task.
ChatGPT, a chatbot developed by OpenAI, has gained widespread popularity and media attention since its release in November 2022. However, little hard evidence is available regarding its perception in various sources. In this paper, we analyze over 300,000 tweets and more than 150 scientific papers to investigate how ChatGPT is perceived and discussed. Our findings show that ChatGPT is generally viewed as of high quality, with positive sentiment and emotions of joy dominating in social media. Its perception has slightly decreased since its debut, however, with joy decreasing and (negative) surprise on the rise, and it is perceived more negatively in languages other than English. In recent scientific papers, ChatGPT is characterized as a great opportunity across various fields including the medical domain, but also as a threat concerning ethics and receives mixed assessments for education. Our comprehensive meta-analysis of ChatGPT's current perception after 2.5 months since its release can contribute to shaping the public debate and informing its future development. We make our data available.
Human-designed visual manuals are crucial components in shape assembly activities. They provide step-by-step guidance on how we should move and connect different parts in a convenient and physically-realizable way. While there has been an ongoing effort in building agents that perform assembly tasks, the information in human-design manuals has been largely overlooked. We identify that this is due to 1) a lack of realistic 3D assembly objects that have paired manuals and 2) the difficulty of extracting structured information from purely image-based manuals. Motivated by this observation, we present IKEA-Manual, a dataset consisting of 102 IKEA objects paired with assembly manuals. We provide fine-grained annotations on the IKEA objects and assembly manuals, including decomposed assembly parts, assembly plans, manual segmentation, and 2D-3D correspondence between 3D parts and visual manuals. We illustrate the broad application of our dataset on four tasks related to shape assembly: assembly plan generation, part segmentation, pose estimation, and 3D part assembly.