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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Conditional Image-to-Image Translation

May 01, 2018
Jianxin Lin, Yingce Xia, Tao Qin, Zhibo Chen, Tie-Yan Liu

Image-to-image translation tasks have been widely investigated with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and dual learning. However, existing models lack the ability to control the translated results in the target domain and their results usually lack of diversity in the sense that a fixed image usually leads to (almost) deterministic translation result. In this paper, we study a new problem, conditional image-to-image translation, which is to translate an image from the source domain to the target domain conditioned on a given image in the target domain. It requires that the generated image should inherit some domain-specific features of the conditional image from the target domain. Therefore, changing the conditional image in the target domain will lead to diverse translation results for a fixed input image from the source domain, and therefore the conditional input image helps to control the translation results. We tackle this problem with unpaired data based on GANs and dual learning. We twist two conditional translation models (one translation from A domain to B domain, and the other one from B domain to A domain) together for inputs combination and reconstruction while preserving domain independent features. We carry out experiments on men's faces from-to women's faces translation and edges to shoes&bags translations. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

* 9 pages, 9 figures, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 

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Semi-Supervised Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 24, 2019
Manan Oza, Himanshu Vaghela, Sudhir Bagul

Image-to-image translation is a long-established and a difficult problem in computer vision. In this paper we propose an adversarial based model for image-to-image translation. The regular deep neural-network based methods perform the task of image-to-image translation by comparing gram matrices and using image segmentation which requires human intervention. Our generative adversarial network based model works on a conditional probability approach. This approach makes the image translation independent of any local, global and content or style features. In our approach we use a bidirectional reconstruction model appended with the affine transform factor that helps in conserving the content and photorealism as compared to other models. The advantage of using such an approach is that the image-to-image translation is semi-supervised, independant of image segmentation and inherits the properties of generative adversarial networks tending to produce realistic. This method has proven to produce better results than Multimodal Unsupervised Image-to-image translation.


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Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation Networks

Jul 23, 2018
Ming-Yu Liu, Thomas Breuel, Jan Kautz

Unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at learning a joint distribution of images in different domains by using images from the marginal distributions in individual domains. Since there exists an infinite set of joint distributions that can arrive the given marginal distributions, one could infer nothing about the joint distribution from the marginal distributions without additional assumptions. To address the problem, we make a shared-latent space assumption and propose an unsupervised image-to-image translation framework based on Coupled GANs. We compare the proposed framework with competing approaches and present high quality image translation results on various challenging unsupervised image translation tasks, including street scene image translation, animal image translation, and face image translation. We also apply the proposed framework to domain adaptation and achieve state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets. Code and additional results are available in https://github.com/mingyuliutw/unit .

* NIPS 2017, 11 pages, 6 figures 

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Retrieval Guided Unsupervised Multi-domain Image-to-Image Translation

Aug 11, 2020
Raul Gomez, Yahui Liu, Marco De Nadai, Dimosthenis Karatzas, Bruno Lepri, Nicu Sebe

Image to image translation aims to learn a mapping that transforms an image from one visual domain to another. Recent works assume that images descriptors can be disentangled into a domain-invariant content representation and a domain-specific style representation. Thus, translation models seek to preserve the content of source images while changing the style to a target visual domain. However, synthesizing new images is extremely challenging especially in multi-domain translations, as the network has to compose content and style to generate reliable and diverse images in multiple domains. In this paper we propose the use of an image retrieval system to assist the image-to-image translation task. First, we train an image-to-image translation model to map images to multiple domains. Then, we train an image retrieval model using real and generated images to find images similar to a query one in content but in a different domain. Finally, we exploit the image retrieval system to fine-tune the image-to-image translation model and generate higher quality images. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed solution and highlight the contribution of the retrieval network, which can benefit from additional unlabeled data and help image-to-image translation models in the presence of scarce data.

* Submitted to ACM MM '20, October 12-16, 2020, Seattle, WA, USA 

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Show, Attend and Translate: Unpaired Multi-Domain Image-to-Image Translation with Visual Attention

Nov 19, 2018
Honglun Zhang, Wenqing Chen, Jidong Tian, Yongkun Wang, Yaohui Jin

Recently unpaired multi-domain image-to-image translation has attracted great interests and obtained remarkable progress, where a label vector is utilized to indicate multi-domain information. In this paper, we propose SAT (Show, Attend and Translate), an unified and explainable generative adversarial network equipped with visual attention that can perform unpaired image-to-image translation for multiple domains. By introducing an action vector, we treat the original translation tasks as problems of arithmetic addition and subtraction. Visual attention is applied to guarantee that only the regions relevant to the target domains are translated. Extensive experiments on a facial attribute dataset demonstrate the superiority of our approach and the generated attention masks better explain what SAT attends when translating images.


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Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation using Adversarial Consistency Loss

Mar 10, 2020
Yihao Zhao, Ruihai Wu, Hao Dong

Unpaired image-to-image translation is a class of vision problems whose goal is to find the mapping between different image domains using unpaired training data. Cycle-consistency loss is a widely used constraint for such problems. However, due to the strict pixel-level constraint, it cannot perform geometric changes, remove large objects, or ignore irrelevant texture. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial-consistency loss for image-to-image translation. This loss does not require the translated image to be translated back to be a specific source image but can encourage the translated images to retain important features of the source images and overcome the drawbacks of cycle-consistency loss noted above. Our method achieves state-of-the-art results on three challenging tasks: glasses removal, male-to-female translation, and selfie-to-anime translation.


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Controlling biases and diversity in diverse image-to-image translation

Jul 23, 2019
Yaxing Wang, Abel Gonzalez-Garcia, Joost van de Weijer, Luis Herranz

The task of unpaired image-to-image translation is highly challenging due to the lack of explicit cross-domain pairs of instances. We consider here diverse image translation (DIT), an even more challenging setting in which an image can have multiple plausible translations. This is normally achieved by explicitly disentangling content and style in the latent representation and sampling different styles codes while maintaining the image content. Despite the success of current DIT models, they are prone to suffer from bias. In this paper, we study the problem of bias in image-to-image translation. Biased datasets may add undesired changes (e.g. change gender or race in face images) to the output translations as a consequence of the particular underlying visual distribution in the target domain. In order to alleviate the effects of this problem we propose the use of semantic constraints that enforce the preservation of desired image properties. Our proposed model is a step towards unbiased diverse image-to-image translation (UDIT), and results in less unwanted changes in the translated images while still performing the wanted transformation. Experiments on several heavily biased datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques in different domains such as faces, objects, and scenes.

* The paper is under consideration at Computer Vision and Image Understanding 

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Unaligned Image-to-Image Translation by Learning to Reweight

Sep 24, 2021
Shaoan Xie, Mingming Gong, Yanwu Xu, Kun Zhang

Unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at learning the mapping from the source to target domain without using paired images for training. An essential yet restrictive assumption for unsupervised image translation is that the two domains are aligned, e.g., for the selfie2anime task, the anime (selfie) domain must contain only anime (selfie) face images that can be translated to some images in the other domain. Collecting aligned domains can be laborious and needs lots of attention. In this paper, we consider the task of image translation between two unaligned domains, which may arise for various possible reasons. To solve this problem, we propose to select images based on importance reweighting and develop a method to learn the weights and perform translation simultaneously and automatically. We compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art image translation approaches and present qualitative and quantitative results on different tasks with unaligned domains. Extensive empirical evidence demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed problem formulation and the superiority of our method.

* ICCV2021 

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Sem-GAN: Semantically-Consistent Image-to-Image Translation

Jul 12, 2018
Anoop Cherian, Alan Sullivan

Unpaired image-to-image translation is the problem of mapping an image in the source domain to one in the target domain, without requiring corresponding image pairs. To ensure the translated images are realistically plausible, recent works, such as Cycle-GAN, demands this mapping to be invertible. While, this requirement demonstrates promising results when the domains are unimodal, its performance is unpredictable in a multi-modal scenario such as in an image segmentation task. This is because, invertibility does not necessarily enforce semantic correctness. To this end, we present a semantically-consistent GAN framework, dubbed Sem-GAN, in which the semantics are defined by the class identities of image segments in the source domain as produced by a semantic segmentation algorithm. Our proposed framework includes consistency constraints on the translation task that, together with the GAN loss and the cycle-constraints, enforces that the images when translated will inherit the appearances of the target domain, while (approximately) maintaining their identities from the source domain. We present experiments on several image-to-image translation tasks and demonstrate that Sem-GAN improves the quality of the translated images significantly, sometimes by more than 20% on the FCN score. Further, we show that semantic segmentation models, trained with synthetic images translated via Sem-GAN, leads to significantly better segmentation results than other variants.


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Quality-aware Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation

Mar 15, 2019
Lei Chen, Le Wu, Zhenzhen Hu, Meng Wang

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have been widely used for the image-to-image translation task. While these models rely heavily on the labeled image pairs, recently some GAN variants have been proposed to tackle the unpaired image translation task. These models exploited supervision at the domain level with a reconstruction process for unpaired image translation. On the other hand, parallel works have shown that leveraging perceptual loss functions based on high level deep features could enhance the generated image quality. Nevertheless, as these GAN-based models either depended on the pretrained deep network structure or relied on the labeled image pairs, they could not be directly applied to the unpaired image translation task. Moreover, despite the improvement of the introduced perceptual losses from deep neural networks, few researchers have explored the possibility of improving the generated image quality from classical image quality measures. To tackle the above two challenges, in this paper, we propose a unified quality-aware GAN-based framework for unpaired image-to-image translation, where a quality-aware loss is explicitly incorporated by comparing each source image and the reconstructed image at the domain level. Specifically, we design two detailed implementations of the quality loss. The first method is based on a classical image quality assessment measure by defining a classical quality-aware loss. The second method proposes an adaptive deep network based loss. Finally, extensive experimental results on many real-world datasets clearly show the quality improvement of our proposed framework, and the superiority of leveraging classical image quality measures for unpaired image translation compared to the deep network based model.

* IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 

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In2I : Unsupervised Multi-Image-to-Image Translation Using Generative Adversarial Networks

Nov 26, 2017
Pramuditha Perera, Mahdi Abavisani, Vishal M. Patel

In unsupervised image-to-image translation, the goal is to learn the mapping between an input image and an output image using a set of unpaired training images. In this paper, we propose an extension of the unsupervised image-to-image translation problem to multiple input setting. Given a set of paired images from multiple modalities, a transformation is learned to translate the input into a specified domain. For this purpose, we introduce a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) based framework along with a multi-modal generator structure and a new loss term, latent consistency loss. Through various experiments we show that leveraging multiple inputs generally improves the visual quality of the translated images. Moreover, we show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art unsupervised image-to-image translation methods.


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XOGAN: One-to-Many Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation

May 18, 2018
Yongqi Zhang

Unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at learning the relationship between samples from two image domains without supervised pair information. The relationship between two domain images can be one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many. In this paper, we study the one-to-many unsupervised image translation problem in which an input sample from one domain can correspond to multiple samples in the other domain. To learn the complex relationship between the two domains, we introduce an additional variable to control the variations in our one-to-many mapping. A generative model with an XO-structure, called the XOGAN, is proposed to learn the cross domain relationship among the two domains and the ad- ditional variables. Not only can we learn to translate between the two image domains, we can also handle the translated images with additional variations. Experiments are performed on unpaired image generation tasks, including edges-to-objects translation and facial image translation. We show that the proposed XOGAN model can generate plausible images and control variations, such as color and texture, of the generated images. Moreover, while state-of-the-art unpaired image generation algorithms tend to generate images with monotonous colors, XOGAN can generate more diverse results.


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Discriminative Region Proposal Adversarial Networks for High-Quality Image-to-Image Translation

Aug 06, 2018
Chao Wang, Haiyong Zheng, Zhibin Yu, Ziqiang Zheng, Zhaorui Gu, Bing Zheng

Image-to-image translation has been made much progress with embracing Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). However, it's still very challenging for translation tasks that require high quality, especially at high-resolution and photorealism. In this paper, we present Discriminative Region Proposal Adversarial Networks (DRPAN) for high-quality image-to-image translation. We decompose the procedure of image-to-image translation task into three iterated steps, first is to generate an image with global structure but some local artifacts (via GAN), second is using our DRPnet to propose the most fake region from the generated image, and third is to implement "image inpainting" on the most fake region for more realistic result through a reviser, so that the system (DRPAN) can be gradually optimized to synthesize images with more attention on the most artifact local part. Experiments on a variety of image-to-image translation tasks and datasets validate that our method outperforms state-of-the-arts for producing high-quality translation results in terms of both human perceptual studies and automatic quantitative measures.

* ECCV 2018 

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Multiple GAN Inversion for Exemplar-based Image-to-Image Translation

Mar 26, 2021
Taewon Kang

Existing state-of-the-art techniques in exemplar-based image-to-image translation have several critical problems. Existing method related to exemplar-based image-to-image translation is impossible to translate on an image tuple input(source, target) that is not aligned. Also, we can confirm that the existing method has limited generalization ability to unseen images. To overcome this limitation, we propose Multiple GAN Inversion for Exemplar-based Image-to-Image Translation. Our novel Multiple GAN Inversion avoids human intervention using a self-deciding algorithm in choosing the number of layers using Fr\'echet Inception Distance(FID), which selects more plausible image reconstruction result among multiple hypotheses without any training or supervision. Experimental results shows the advantage of the proposed method compared to existing state-of-the-art exemplar-based image-to-image translation methods.

* 8 pages, 8 figures, extended version of arXiv:2011.09330 

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DualGAN: Unsupervised Dual Learning for Image-to-Image Translation

Oct 09, 2018
Zili Yi, Hao Zhang, Ping Tan, Minglun Gong

Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for cross-domain image-to-image translation have made much progress recently. Depending on the task complexity, thousands to millions of labeled image pairs are needed to train a conditional GAN. However, human labeling is expensive, even impractical, and large quantities of data may not always be available. Inspired by dual learning from natural language translation, we develop a novel dual-GAN mechanism, which enables image translators to be trained from two sets of unlabeled images from two domains. In our architecture, the primal GAN learns to translate images from domain U to those in domain V, while the dual GAN learns to invert the task. The closed loop made by the primal and dual tasks allows images from either domain to be translated and then reconstructed. Hence a loss function that accounts for the reconstruction error of images can be used to train the translators. Experiments on multiple image translation tasks with unlabeled data show considerable performance gain of DualGAN over a single GAN. For some tasks, DualGAN can even achieve comparable or slightly better results than conditional GAN trained on fully labeled data.

* Accepted by ICCV 2017 

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Image Disentanglement and Uncooperative Re-Entanglement for High-Fidelity Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 11, 2019
Adam W. Harley, Shih-En Wei, Jason Saragih, Katerina Fragkiadaki

Cross-domain image-to-image translation should satisfy two requirements: (1) preserve the information that is common to both domains, and (2) generate convincing images covering variations that appear in the target domain. This is challenging, especially when there are no example translations available as supervision. Adversarial cycle consistency was recently proposed as a solution, with beautiful and creative results, yielding much follow-up work. However, augmented reality applications cannot readily use such techniques to provide users with compelling translations of real scenes, because the translations do not have high-fidelity constraints. In other words, current models are liable to change details that should be preserved: while re-texturing a face, they may alter the face's expression in an unpredictable way. In this paper, we introduce the problem of high-fidelity image-to-image translation, and present a method for solving it. Our main insight is that low-fidelity translations typically escape a cycle-consistency penalty, because the back-translator learns to compensate for the forward-translator's errors. We therefore introduce an optimization technique that prevents the networks from cooperating: simply train each network only when its input data is real. Prior works, in comparison, train each network with a mix of real and generated data. Experimental results show that our method accurately disentangles the factors that separate the domains, and converges to semantics-preserving translations that prior methods miss.


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Show, Attend and Translate: Unsupervised Image Translation with Self-Regularization and Attention

Jun 16, 2018
Chao Yang, Taehwan Kim, Ruizhe Wang, Hao Peng, C. -C. Jay Kuo

Image translation between two domains is a class of problems aiming to learn mapping from an input image in the source domain to an output image in the target domain. It has been applied to numerous domains, such as data augmentation, domain adaptation, and unsupervised training. When paired training data is not accessible, image translation becomes an ill-posed problem. We constrain the problem with the assumption that the translated image needs to be perceptually similar to the original image and also appears to be drawn from the new domain, and propose a simple yet effective image translation model consisting of a single generator trained with a self-regularization term and an adversarial term. We further notice that existing image translation techniques are agnostic to the subjects of interest and often introduce unwanted changes or artifacts to the input. Thus we propose to add an attention module to predict an attention map to guide the image translation process. The module learns to attend to key parts of the image while keeping everything else unaltered, essentially avoiding undesired artifacts or changes. The predicted attention map also opens door to applications such as unsupervised segmentation and saliency detection. Extensive experiments and evaluations show that our model while being simpler, achieves significantly better performance than existing image translation methods.


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Breaking the Dilemma of Medical Image-to-image Translation

Oct 13, 2021
Lingke Kong, Chenyu Lian, Detian Huang, Zhenjiang Li, Yanle Hu, Qichao Zhou

Supervised Pix2Pix and unsupervised Cycle-consistency are two modes that dominate the field of medical image-to-image translation. However, neither modes are ideal. The Pix2Pix mode has excellent performance. But it requires paired and well pixel-wise aligned images, which may not always be achievable due to respiratory motion or anatomy change between times that paired images are acquired. The Cycle-consistency mode is less stringent with training data and works well on unpaired or misaligned images. But its performance may not be optimal. In order to break the dilemma of the existing modes, we propose a new unsupervised mode called RegGAN for medical image-to-image translation. It is based on the theory of "loss-correction". In RegGAN, the misaligned target images are considered as noisy labels and the generator is trained with an additional registration network to fit the misaligned noise distribution adaptively. The goal is to search for the common optimal solution to both image-to-image translation and registration tasks. We incorporated RegGAN into a few state-of-the-art image-to-image translation methods and demonstrated that RegGAN could be easily combined with these methods to improve their performances. Such as a simple CycleGAN in our mode surpasses latest NICEGAN even though using less network parameters. Based on our results, RegGAN outperformed both Pix2Pix on aligned data and Cycle-consistency on misaligned or unpaired data. RegGAN is insensitive to noises which makes it a better choice for a wide range of scenarios, especially for medical image-to-image translation tasks in which well pixel-wise aligned data are not available


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GANHopper: Multi-Hop GAN for Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation

Feb 29, 2020
Wallace Lira, Johannes Merz, Daniel Ritchie, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hao Zhang

We introduce GANHopper, an unsupervised image-to-image translation network that transforms images gradually between two domains, through multiple hops. Instead of executing translation directly, we steer the translation by requiring the network to produce in-between images which resemble weighted hybrids between images from the two in-put domains. Our network is trained on unpaired images from the two domains only, without any in-between images.All hops are produced using a single generator along each direction. In addition to the standard cycle-consistency and adversarial losses, we introduce a new hybrid discrimina-tor, which is trained to classify the intermediate images produced by the generator as weighted hybrids, with weights based on a predetermined hop count. We also introduce a smoothness term to constrain the magnitude of each hop,further regularizing the translation. Compared to previous methods, GANHopper excels at image translations involving domain-specific image features and geometric variations while also preserving non-domain-specific features such as backgrounds and general color schemes.

* 9 pages, 9 figures 

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