Knowledge editing (KE) aims to efficiently and precisely modify the behavior of large language models (LLMs) to update specific knowledge without negatively influencing other knowledge. Current research primarily focuses on white-box LLMs editing, overlooking an important scenario: black-box LLMs editing, where LLMs are accessed through interfaces and only textual output is available. In this paper, we first officially introduce KE on black-box LLMs and then propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to overcome the limitations of existing evaluations that are not applicable to black-box LLMs editing and lack comprehensiveness. To tackle privacy leaks of editing data and style over-editing in current methods, we introduce a novel postEdit framework, resolving privacy concerns through downstream post-processing and maintaining textual style consistency via fine-grained editing to original responses. Experiments and analysis on two benchmarks demonstrate that postEdit outperforms all baselines and achieves strong generalization, especially with huge improvements on style retention (average $+20.82\%\uparrow$).
The goal of session-based recommendation in E-commerce is to predict the next item that an anonymous user will purchase based on the browsing and purchase history. However, constructing global or local transition graphs to supplement session data can lead to noisy correlations and user intent vanishing. In this work, we propose the Frequent Attribute Pattern Augmented Transformer (FAPAT) that characterizes user intents by building attribute transition graphs and matching attribute patterns. Specifically, the frequent and compact attribute patterns are served as memory to augment session representations, followed by a gate and a transformer block to fuse the whole session information. Through extensive experiments on two public benchmarks and 100 million industrial data in three domains, we demonstrate that FAPAT consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods by an average of 4.5% across various evaluation metrics (Hits, NDCG, MRR). Besides evaluating the next-item prediction, we estimate the models' capabilities to capture user intents via predicting items' attributes and period-item recommendations.
Semantic identifier (ID) is an important concept in information retrieval that aims to preserve the semantics of objects such as documents and items inside their IDs. Previous studies typically adopt a two-stage pipeline to learn semantic IDs by first procuring embeddings using off-the-shelf text encoders and then deriving IDs based on the embeddings. However, each step introduces potential information loss and there is usually an inherent mismatch between the distribution of embeddings within the latent space produced by text encoders and the anticipated distribution required for semantic indexing. Nevertheless, it is non-trivial to design a method that can learn the document's semantic representations and its hierarchical structure simultaneously, given that semantic IDs are discrete and sequentially structured, and the semantic supervision is deficient. In this paper, we introduce LMINDEXER, a self-supervised framework to learn semantic IDs with a generative language model. We tackle the challenge of sequential discrete ID by introducing a semantic indexer capable of generating neural sequential discrete representations with progressive training and contrastive learning. In response to the semantic supervision deficiency, we propose to train the model with a self-supervised document reconstruction objective. The learned semantic indexer can facilitate various downstream tasks, such as recommendation and retrieval. We conduct experiments on three tasks including recommendation, product search, and document retrieval on five datasets from various domains, where LMINDEXER outperforms competitive baselines significantly and consistently.
In real dialogue scenarios, as there are unknown input noises in the utterances, existing supervised slot filling models often perform poorly in practical applications. Even though there are some studies on noise-robust models, these works are only evaluated on rule-based synthetic datasets, which is limiting, making it difficult to promote the research of noise-robust methods. In this paper, we introduce a noise robustness evaluation dataset named Noise-SF for slot filling task. The proposed dataset contains five types of human-annotated noise, and all those noises are exactly existed in real extensive robust-training methods of slot filling into the proposed framework. By conducting exhaustive empirical evaluation experiments on Noise-SF, we find that baseline models have poor performance in robustness evaluation, and the proposed framework can effectively improve the robustness of models. Based on the empirical experimental results, we make some forward-looking suggestions to fuel the research in this direction. Our dataset Noise-SF will be released at https://github.com/dongguanting/Noise-SF.
Modeling customer shopping intentions is a crucial task for e-commerce, as it directly impacts user experience and engagement. Thus, accurately understanding customer preferences is essential for providing personalized recommendations. Session-based recommendation, which utilizes customer session data to predict their next interaction, has become increasingly popular. However, existing session datasets have limitations in terms of item attributes, user diversity, and dataset scale. As a result, they cannot comprehensively capture the spectrum of user behaviors and preferences. To bridge this gap, we present the Amazon Multilingual Multi-locale Shopping Session Dataset, namely Amazon-M2. It is the first multilingual dataset consisting of millions of user sessions from six different locales, where the major languages of products are English, German, Japanese, French, Italian, and Spanish. Remarkably, the dataset can help us enhance personalization and understanding of user preferences, which can benefit various existing tasks as well as enable new tasks. To test the potential of the dataset, we introduce three tasks in this work: (1) next-product recommendation, (2) next-product recommendation with domain shifts, and (3) next-product title generation. With the above tasks, we benchmark a range of algorithms on our proposed dataset, drawing new insights for further research and practice. In addition, based on the proposed dataset and tasks, we hosted a competition in the KDD CUP 2023 and have attracted thousands of users and submissions. The winning solutions and the associated workshop can be accessed at our website https://kddcup23.github.io/.
Knowledge graph embeddings (KGE) have been extensively studied to embed large-scale relational data for many real-world applications. Existing methods have long ignored the fact many KGs contain two fundamentally different views: high-level ontology-view concepts and fine-grained instance-view entities. They usually embed all nodes as vectors in one latent space. However, a single geometric representation fails to capture the structural differences between two views and lacks probabilistic semantics towards concepts' granularity. We propose Concept2Box, a novel approach that jointly embeds the two views of a KG using dual geometric representations. We model concepts with box embeddings, which learn the hierarchy structure and complex relations such as overlap and disjoint among them. Box volumes can be interpreted as concepts' granularity. Different from concepts, we model entities as vectors. To bridge the gap between concept box embeddings and entity vector embeddings, we propose a novel vector-to-box distance metric and learn both embeddings jointly. Experiments on both the public DBpedia KG and a newly-created industrial KG showed the effectiveness of Concept2Box.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved great success in modeling graph-structured data. However, recent works show that GNNs are vulnerable to adversarial attacks which can fool the GNN model to make desired predictions of the attacker. In addition, training data of GNNs can be leaked under membership inference attacks. This largely hinders the adoption of GNNs in high-stake domains such as e-commerce, finance and bioinformatics. Though investigations have been made in conducting robust predictions and protecting membership privacy, they generally fail to simultaneously consider the robustness and membership privacy. Therefore, in this work, we study a novel problem of developing robust and membership privacy-preserving GNNs. Our analysis shows that Information Bottleneck (IB) can help filter out noisy information and regularize the predictions on labeled samples, which can benefit robustness and membership privacy. However, structural noises and lack of labels in node classification challenge the deployment of IB on graph-structured data. To mitigate these issues, we propose a novel graph information bottleneck framework that can alleviate structural noises with neighbor bottleneck. Pseudo labels are also incorporated in the optimization to minimize the gap between the predictions on the labeled set and unlabeled set for membership privacy. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that our method can give robust predictions and simultaneously preserve membership privacy.
Large language models (LMs) beyond a certain scale, demonstrate the emergent capability of generating free-text rationales for their predictions via chain-of-thought (CoT) prompting. While CoT can yield dramatically improved performance, such gains are only observed for sufficiently large LMs. Even more concerning, there is little guarantee that the generated rationales are consistent with LM's predictions or faithfully justify the decisions. In this work, we propose a faithful knowledge distillation method to learn a small, self-consistent CoT model from a teacher model that is orders of magnitude larger. To form better supervision, we elicit rationales supporting the gold answers from a large LM (teacher) by contrastive decoding, which encourages the teacher to generate tokens that become more plausible only when the answer is considered. To ensure faithful distillation, we use the teacher-generated rationales to learn a student LM with a counterfactual reasoning objective, which prevents the student from ignoring the rationales to make inconsistent predictions. Experiments show that, while yielding comparable end-task performance, our method can generate CoT rationales that are more faithful than baselines do. Further analysis suggests that such a model respects the rationales more when making decisions; thus, we can improve its performance more by refining its rationales.
EEG source localization is an important technical issue in EEG analysis. Despite many numerical methods existed for EEG source localization, they all rely on strong priors and the deep sources are intractable. Here we propose a deep learning framework using spatial basis function decomposition for EEG source localization. This framework combines the edge sparsity prior and Gaussian source basis, called Edge Sparse Basis Network (ESBN). The performance of ESBN is validated by both synthetic data and real EEG data during motor tasks. The results suggest that the supervised ESBN outperforms the traditional numerical methods in synthetic data and the unsupervised fine-tuning provides more focal and accurate localizations in real data. Our proposed deep learning framework can be extended to account for other source priors, and the real-time property of ESBN can facilitate the applications of EEG in brain-computer interfaces and clinics.