In this work, we address the challenging task of 3D object recognition without the reliance on real-world 3D labeled data. Our goal is to predict the 3D shape, size, and 6D pose of objects within a single RGB-D image, operating at the category level and eliminating the need for CAD models during inference. While existing self-supervised methods have made strides in this field, they often suffer from inefficiencies arising from non-end-to-end processing, reliance on separate models for different object categories, and slow surface extraction during the training of implicit reconstruction models; thus hindering both the speed and real-world applicability of the 3D recognition process. Our proposed method leverages a multi-stage training pipeline, designed to efficiently transfer synthetic performance to the real-world domain. This approach is achieved through a combination of 2D and 3D supervised losses during the synthetic domain training, followed by the incorporation of 2D supervised and 3D self-supervised losses on real-world data in two additional learning stages. By adopting this comprehensive strategy, our method successfully overcomes the aforementioned limitations and outperforms existing self-supervised 6D pose and size estimation baselines on the NOCS test-set with a 16.4% absolute improvement in mAP for 6D pose estimation while running in near real-time at 5 Hz.
Reliable forecasting of the future behavior of road agents is a critical component to safe planning in autonomous vehicles. Here, we represent continuous trajectories as sequences of discrete motion tokens and cast multi-agent motion prediction as a language modeling task over this domain. Our model, MotionLM, provides several advantages: First, it does not require anchors or explicit latent variable optimization to learn multimodal distributions. Instead, we leverage a single standard language modeling objective, maximizing the average log probability over sequence tokens. Second, our approach bypasses post-hoc interaction heuristics where individual agent trajectory generation is conducted prior to interactive scoring. Instead, MotionLM produces joint distributions over interactive agent futures in a single autoregressive decoding process. In addition, the model's sequential factorization enables temporally causal conditional rollouts. The proposed approach establishes new state-of-the-art performance for multi-agent motion prediction on the Waymo Open Motion Dataset, ranking 1st on the interactive challenge leaderboard.
Monocular depth estimation is scale-ambiguous, and thus requires scale supervision to produce metric predictions. Even so, the resulting models will be geometry-specific, with learned scales that cannot be directly transferred across domains. Because of that, recent works focus instead on relative depth, eschewing scale in favor of improved up-to-scale zero-shot transfer. In this work we introduce ZeroDepth, a novel monocular depth estimation framework capable of predicting metric scale for arbitrary test images from different domains and camera parameters. This is achieved by (i) the use of input-level geometric embeddings that enable the network to learn a scale prior over objects; and (ii) decoupling the encoder and decoder stages, via a variational latent representation that is conditioned on single frame information. We evaluated ZeroDepth targeting both outdoor (KITTI, DDAD, nuScenes) and indoor (NYUv2) benchmarks, and achieved a new state-of-the-art in both settings using the same pre-trained model, outperforming methods that train on in-domain data and require test-time scaling to produce metric estimates.
3D object detection from visual sensors is a cornerstone capability of robotic systems. State-of-the-art methods focus on reasoning and decoding object bounding boxes from multi-view camera input. In this work we gain intuition from the integral role of multi-view consistency in 3D scene understanding and geometric learning. To this end, we introduce VEDet, a novel 3D object detection framework that exploits 3D multi-view geometry to improve localization through viewpoint awareness and equivariance. VEDet leverages a query-based transformer architecture and encodes the 3D scene by augmenting image features with positional encodings from their 3D perspective geometry. We design view-conditioned queries at the output level, which enables the generation of multiple virtual frames during training to learn viewpoint equivariance by enforcing multi-view consistency. The multi-view geometry injected at the input level as positional encodings and regularized at the loss level provides rich geometric cues for 3D object detection, leading to state-of-the-art performance on the nuScenes benchmark. The code and model are made available at https://github.com/TRI-ML/VEDet.
This work proposes an end-to-end multi-camera 3D multi-object tracking (MOT) framework. It emphasizes spatio-temporal continuity and integrates both past and future reasoning for tracked objects. Thus, we name it "Past-and-Future reasoning for Tracking" (PF-Track). Specifically, our method adapts the "tracking by attention" framework and represents tracked instances coherently over time with object queries. To explicitly use historical cues, our "Past Reasoning" module learns to refine the tracks and enhance the object features by cross-attending to queries from previous frames and other objects. The "Future Reasoning" module digests historical information and predicts robust future trajectories. In the case of long-term occlusions, our method maintains the object positions and enables re-association by integrating motion predictions. On the nuScenes dataset, our method improves AMOTA by a large margin and remarkably reduces ID-Switches by 90% compared to prior approaches, which is an order of magnitude less. The code and models are made available at https://github.com/TRI-ML/PF-Track.
A key contributor to recent progress in 3D detection from single images is monocular depth estimation. Existing methods focus on how to leverage depth explicitly, by generating pseudo-pointclouds or providing attention cues for image features. More recent works leverage depth prediction as a pretraining task and fine-tune the depth representation while training it for 3D detection. However, the adaptation is insufficient and is limited in scale by manual labels. In this work, we propose to further align depth representation with the target domain in unsupervised fashions. Our methods leverage commonly available LiDAR or RGB videos during training time to fine-tune the depth representation, which leads to improved 3D detectors. Especially when using RGB videos, we show that our two-stage training by first generating pseudo-depth labels is critical because of the inconsistency in loss distribution between the two tasks. With either type of reference data, our multi-task learning approach improves over the state of the art on both KITTI and NuScenes, while matching the test-time complexity of its single task sub-network.
Optical sensors and learning algorithms for autonomous vehicles have dramatically advanced in the past few years. Nonetheless, the reliability of today's autonomous vehicles is hindered by the limited line-of-sight sensing capability and the brittleness of data-driven methods in handling extreme situations. With recent developments of telecommunication technologies, cooperative perception with vehicle-to-vehicle communications has become a promising paradigm to enhance autonomous driving in dangerous or emergency situations. We introduce COOPERNAUT, an end-to-end learning model that uses cross-vehicle perception for vision-based cooperative driving. Our model encodes LiDAR information into compact point-based representations that can be transmitted as messages between vehicles via realistic wireless channels. To evaluate our model, we develop AutoCastSim, a network-augmented driving simulation framework with example accident-prone scenarios. Our experiments on AutoCastSim suggest that our cooperative perception driving models lead to a 40% improvement in average success rate over egocentric driving models in these challenging driving situations and a 5 times smaller bandwidth requirement than prior work V2VNet. COOPERNAUT and AUTOCASTSIM are available at https://ut-austin-rpl.github.io/Coopernaut/.
Test-time adaptation is a special setting of unsupervised domain adaptation where a trained model on the source domain has to adapt to the target domain without accessing source data. We propose a novel way to leverage self-supervised contrastive learning to facilitate target feature learning, along with an online pseudo labeling scheme with refinement that significantly denoises pseudo labels. The contrastive learning task is applied jointly with pseudo labeling, contrasting positive and negative pairs constructed similarly as MoCo but with source-initialized encoder, and excluding same-class negative pairs indicated by pseudo labels. Meanwhile, we produce pseudo labels online and refine them via soft voting among their nearest neighbors in the target feature space, enabled by maintaining a memory queue. Our method, AdaContrast, achieves state-of-the-art performance on major benchmarks while having several desirable properties compared to existing works, including memory efficiency, insensitivity to hyper-parameters, and better model calibration. Project page: sites.google.com/view/adacontrast.
Multi-frame depth estimation improves over single-frame approaches by also leveraging geometric relationships between images via feature matching, in addition to learning appearance-based features. In this paper we revisit feature matching for self-supervised monocular depth estimation, and propose a novel transformer architecture for cost volume generation. We use depth-discretized epipolar sampling to select matching candidates, and refine predictions through a series of self- and cross-attention layers. These layers sharpen the matching probability between pixel features, improving over standard similarity metrics prone to ambiguities and local minima. The refined cost volume is decoded into depth estimates, and the whole pipeline is trained end-to-end from videos using only a photometric objective. Experiments on the KITTI and DDAD datasets show that our DepthFormer architecture establishes a new state of the art in self-supervised monocular depth estimation, and is even competitive with highly specialized supervised single-frame architectures. We also show that our learned cross-attention network yields representations transferable across datasets, increasing the effectiveness of pre-training strategies. Project page: https://sites.google.com/tri.global/depthformer