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Yuliang Liu

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Enhancing Scene Text Detectors with Realistic Text Image Synthesis Using Diffusion Models

Nov 28, 2023
Ling Fu, Zijie Wu, Yingying Zhu, Yuliang Liu, Xiang Bai

Scene text detection techniques have garnered significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications. However, existing methods have a high demand for training data, and obtaining accurate human annotations is labor-intensive and time-consuming. As a solution, researchers have widely adopted synthetic text images as a complementary resource to real text images during pre-training. Yet there is still room for synthetic datasets to enhance the performance of scene text detectors. We contend that one main limitation of existing generation methods is the insufficient integration of foreground text with the background. To alleviate this problem, we present the Diffusion Model based Text Generator (DiffText), a pipeline that utilizes the diffusion model to seamlessly blend foreground text regions with the background's intrinsic features. Additionally, we propose two strategies to generate visually coherent text with fewer spelling errors. With fewer text instances, our produced text images consistently surpass other synthetic data in aiding text detectors. Extensive experiments on detecting horizontal, rotated, curved, and line-level texts demonstrate the effectiveness of DiffText in producing realistic text images.

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Monkey: Image Resolution and Text Label Are Important Things for Large Multi-modal Models

Nov 24, 2023
Zhang Li, Biao Yang, Qiang Liu, Zhiyin Ma, Shuo Zhang, Jingxu Yang, Yabo Sun, Yuliang Liu, Xiang Bai

Large Multimodal Models (LMMs) have shown promise in vision-language tasks but struggle with high-resolution input and detailed scene understanding. Addressing these challenges, we introduce Monkey to enhance LMM capabilities. Firstly, Monkey processes input images by dividing them into uniform patches, each matching the size (e.g., 448x448) used in the original training of the well-trained vision encoder. Equipped with individual adapter for each patch, Monkey can handle higher resolutions up to 1344x896 pixels, enabling the detailed capture of complex visual information. Secondly, it employs a multi-level description generation method, enriching the context for scene-object associations. This two-part strategy ensures more effective learning from generated data: the higher resolution allows for a more detailed capture of visuals, which in turn enhances the effectiveness of comprehensive descriptions. Extensive ablative results validate the effectiveness of our designs. Additionally, experiments on 18 datasets further demonstrate that Monkey surpasses existing LMMs in many tasks like Image Captioning and various Visual Question Answering formats. Specially, in qualitative tests focused on dense text question answering, Monkey has exhibited encouraging results compared with GPT4V. Code is available at

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ML-Bench: Large Language Models Leverage Open-source Libraries for Machine Learning Tasks

Nov 16, 2023
Yuliang Liu, Xiangru Tang, Zefan Cai, Junjie Lu, Yichi Zhang, Yanjun Shao, Zexuan Deng, Helan Hu, Zengxian Yang, Kaikai An, Ruijun Huang, Shuzheng Si, Sheng Chen, Haozhe Zhao, Zhengliang Li, Liang Chen, Yiming Zong, Yan Wang, Tianyu Liu, Zhiwei Jiang, Baobao Chang, Yujia Qin, Wangchunshu Zhou, Yilun Zhao, Arman Cohan, Mark Gerstein

Large language models have shown promising performance in code generation benchmarks. However, a considerable divide exists between these benchmark achievements and their practical applicability, primarily attributed to real-world programming's reliance on pre-existing libraries. Instead of evaluating LLMs to code from scratch, this work aims to propose a new evaluation setup where LLMs use open-source libraries to finish machine learning tasks. Therefore, we propose ML-Bench, an expansive benchmark developed to assess the effectiveness of LLMs in leveraging existing functions in open-source libraries. Consisting of 10044 samples spanning 130 tasks over 14 notable machine learning GitHub repositories. In this setting, given a specific machine learning task instruction and the accompanying README in a codebase, an LLM is tasked to generate code to accomplish the task. This necessitates the comprehension of long and language-code interleaved documents, as well as the understanding of complex cross-file code structures, introducing new challenges. Notably, while GPT-4 exhibits remarkable improvement over other LLMs, it manages to accomplish only 39.73\% of the tasks, leaving a huge space for improvement. We address these challenges by proposing ML-Agent, designed to effectively navigate the codebase, locate documentation, retrieve code, and generate executable code. Empirical results demonstrate that ML-Agent, built upon GPT-4, results in further improvements. Code, data, and models are available at \url{}.

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KwaiYiiMath: Technical Report

Oct 19, 2023
Jiayi Fu, Lei Lin, Xiaoyang Gao, Pengli Liu, Zhengzong Chen, Zhirui Yang, Shengnan Zhang, Xue Zheng, Yan Li, Yuliang Liu, Xucheng Ye, Yiqiao Liao, Chao Liao, Bin Chen, Chengru Song, Junchen Wan, Zijia Lin, Fuzheng Zhang, Zhongyuan Wang, Di Zhang, Kun Gai

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Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable abilities in handling a variety of natural language processing (NLP) downstream tasks, even on mathematical tasks requiring multi-step reasoning. In this report, we introduce the KwaiYiiMath which enhances the mathematical reasoning abilities of KwaiYiiBase1, by applying Supervised Fine-Tuning (SFT) and Reinforced Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), including on both English and Chinese mathematical tasks. Meanwhile, we also constructed a small-scale Chinese primary school mathematics test set (named KMath), consisting of 188 examples to evaluate the correctness of the problem-solving process generated by the models. Empirical studies demonstrate that KwaiYiiMath can achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance on GSM8k, CMath, and KMath compared with the similar size models, respectively.

* technical report. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2306.16636 by other authors 
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Turning a CLIP Model into a Scene Text Spotter

Aug 21, 2023
Wenwen Yu, Yuliang Liu, Xingkui Zhu, Haoyu Cao, Xing Sun, Xiang Bai

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We exploit the potential of the large-scale Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) model to enhance scene text detection and spotting tasks, transforming it into a robust backbone, FastTCM-CR50. This backbone utilizes visual prompt learning and cross-attention in CLIP to extract image and text-based prior knowledge. Using predefined and learnable prompts, FastTCM-CR50 introduces an instance-language matching process to enhance the synergy between image and text embeddings, thereby refining text regions. Our Bimodal Similarity Matching (BSM) module facilitates dynamic language prompt generation, enabling offline computations and improving performance. FastTCM-CR50 offers several advantages: 1) It can enhance existing text detectors and spotters, improving performance by an average of 1.7% and 1.5%, respectively. 2) It outperforms the previous TCM-CR50 backbone, yielding an average improvement of 0.2% and 0.56% in text detection and spotting tasks, along with a 48.5% increase in inference speed. 3) It showcases robust few-shot training capabilities. Utilizing only 10% of the supervised data, FastTCM-CR50 improves performance by an average of 26.5% and 5.5% for text detection and spotting tasks, respectively. 4) It consistently enhances performance on out-of-distribution text detection and spotting datasets, particularly the NightTime-ArT subset from ICDAR2019-ArT and the DOTA dataset for oriented object detection. The code is available at

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2302.14338 
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ESTextSpotter: Towards Better Scene Text Spotting with Explicit Synergy in Transformer

Aug 20, 2023
Mingxin Huang, Jiaxin Zhang, Dezhi Peng, Hao Lu, Can Huang, Yuliang Liu, Xiang Bai, Lianwen Jin

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In recent years, end-to-end scene text spotting approaches are evolving to the Transformer-based framework. While previous studies have shown the crucial importance of the intrinsic synergy between text detection and recognition, recent advances in Transformer-based methods usually adopt an implicit synergy strategy with shared query, which can not fully realize the potential of these two interactive tasks. In this paper, we argue that the explicit synergy considering distinct characteristics of text detection and recognition can significantly improve the performance text spotting. To this end, we introduce a new model named Explicit Synergy-based Text Spotting Transformer framework (ESTextSpotter), which achieves explicit synergy by modeling discriminative and interactive features for text detection and recognition within a single decoder. Specifically, we decompose the conventional shared query into task-aware queries for text polygon and content, respectively. Through the decoder with the proposed vision-language communication module, the queries interact with each other in an explicit manner while preserving discriminative patterns of text detection and recognition, thus improving performance significantly. Additionally, we propose a task-aware query initialization scheme to ensure stable training. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods. Code is available at

* Accepted to ICCV 2023 
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Box-DETR: Understanding and Boxing Conditional Spatial Queries

Jul 17, 2023
Wenze Liu, Hao Lu, Yuliang Liu, Zhiguo Cao

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Conditional spatial queries are recently introduced into DEtection TRansformer (DETR) to accelerate convergence. In DAB-DETR, such queries are modulated by the so-called conditional linear projection at each decoder stage, aiming to search for positions of interest such as the four extremities of the box. Each decoder stage progressively updates the box by predicting the anchor box offsets, while in cross-attention only the box center is informed as the reference point. The use of only box center, however, leaves the width and height of the previous box unknown to the current stage, which hinders accurate prediction of offsets. We argue that the explicit use of the entire box information in cross-attention matters. In this work, we propose Box Agent to condense the box into head-specific agent points. By replacing the box center with the agent point as the reference point in each head, the conditional cross-attention can search for positions from a more reasonable starting point by considering the full scope of the previous box, rather than always from the previous box center. This significantly reduces the burden of the conditional linear projection. Experimental results show that the box agent leads to not only faster convergence but also improved detection performance, e.g., our single-scale model achieves $44.2$ AP with ResNet-50 based on DAB-DETR. Our Box Agent requires minor modifications to the code and has negligible computational workload. Code is available at

* 11 pages 
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On Point Affiliation in Feature Upsampling

Jul 17, 2023
Wenze Liu, Hao Lu, Yuliang Liu, Zhiguo Cao

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We introduce the notion of point affiliation into feature upsampling. By abstracting a feature map into non-overlapped semantic clusters formed by points of identical semantic meaning, feature upsampling can be viewed as point affiliation -- designating a semantic cluster for each upsampled point. In the framework of kernel-based dynamic upsampling, we show that an upsampled point can resort to its low-res decoder neighbors and high-res encoder point to reason the affiliation, conditioned on the mutual similarity between them. We therefore present a generic formulation for generating similarity-aware upsampling kernels and prove that such kernels encourage not only semantic smoothness but also boundary sharpness. This formulation constitutes a novel, lightweight, and universal upsampling solution, Similarity-Aware Point Affiliation (SAPA). We show its working mechanism via our preliminary designs with window-shape kernel. After probing the limitations of the designs on object detection, we reveal additional insights for upsampling, leading to SAPA with the dynamic kernel shape. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SAPA outperforms prior upsamplers and invites consistent performance improvements on a number of dense prediction tasks, including semantic segmentation, object detection, instance segmentation, panoptic segmentation, image matting, and depth estimation. Code is made available at:

* 17 pages. Extended version of NeurIPS 2022 paper "SAPA: Similarity-Aware Point Affiliation for Feature Upsampling" at arXiv:2209.12866v1. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2209.12866 
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